Author name: Simar Singh

Maharaja Duleep Singh ji ( the black prince)

maharaja duleep singh

Maharaja Duleep Singh ( last King of Sikh Empire)

Introduction: Maharaja Duleep Singh, also known as Dalip Singh and Queen Victoria affectionately called him the Black Prince, holds an important place in Sikh history as the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire. Born on 6 September 1838 in Lahore, Punjab, Duleep Singh ascended the throne at the age of five after the death of his father, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. His reign was characterized by political turmoil, the British annexation of Punjab and his exile in England. This article delves into the life, struggles and enduring legacy of Maharaja Duleep Singh, highlighting his early years as Maharaja, his relationship with the British, his conversion to Christianity and his contribution to Sikh history and heritage.

maharaja Duleep singh

Early Childhood : After the demise of his brother and nephew, Duleep Singh were younger heirs to the throne of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Khalsa kingdom. He came to power in September 1843, at the age of five, with his mother ruling on his behalf, and after their defeat in the Anglo-Sikh War under the leadership of the British Resident. The early years of the life of Duleep Singh, the new and last Maharaja of Punjab, played out against the opulent backdrop of his grandfather’s court and the opulent palaces and gardens of Lahore.

As a boy he enjoyed falconry and had the best horses and elephants to ride. He received royal education with two tutors, one Persian and one Gurmukhi. He was taught how to shoot with a gun and bow and trained in command. His mother’s love turned to him. It must have seemed like a kind of paradise, a place full of magical charm for the boy, but the brutality of politics quickly invaded.

Now the court minister Dogra brothers and the British sitting on the other side of the border of Punjab. There was only one obstacle in there path, Maharaja Dalip Singh. They knew that as long as Maharaj Duleep Singh’s mother Maharani Jind Kaur was with him, Duleep Singh could not be dethroned. The British and the Dogre brothers together bought the soldiers of the royal court to separate this mother and son. Knowingly the army of Khalsa Raj had to bow down. By strategizing with the enemy, thousands of Sikhs were killed and many battles were lost. And all these allegations were leveled against Maharani Zinda.

maharani jind kaur and maharaja duleep Singh

Maharani jinda knows about his son : One day, her brother brought a Message to Queen Zinda who was sitting in her palace. Message was That Maharani ji, orders have been issued to leave you from Lahore!! The queen is surprised and asks that my son, the Maharaja, is small. He has gone hunting with his two brothers. Maharani Zinda’s brother looked down with great regret and said, “Sister, you also know that the entire Lahore court has been sold.” Now the one giving orders is not your son, they was britishers. And they  passed this order in the court. And let me tell you more one sad thing that , sister, your son did not go hunting, with dogra brothers , dogra brothers have taken him so that mother and son can stay away forever. Now you will hardly be able to see the face of your beloved son. Hearing this, the ground slipped beneath the feet of Maharanj Zinda. With shock, her mind got shaken and she became unconscious. 

When the Dogras were about to kill Maharaja Dalip Singh, the john login took him to Fatehgarh Sahib. at that time he was only 10 years old.  He left the throne, palace, most of his wealth and lands, and never returned. Fatehgarh, the center of Christianity in northern India, was the place where Duleep Singh, isolated from other Sikh influences, converted from a Sikh to a Christian.  His hair was cut. Her hair was sent as a gift to Queen Victoria in a gift box. He was also separated from his mother, who was transferred to Punjab to prevent her from becoming a rallying point for Sikh issues in Punjab.

Sent to England:A year later, Duleep Singh was sent to England, where he received a royal audience and quickly became a success in the presence of Queen Victoria. During his stay at Buckingham Palace, he commissioned Franz Xavier Winterhalter, the best painter of the time, to paint a portrait of Duleep Singh. It was during the photo session that the young Maharajah got the opportunity to hold the iconic Kohinoor diamond, which Prince Albert had previously tried to cut in two. This is to increase the brightness.

Duleep Singh looked at the diamond for a few seconds and then returned the ring to the queen. The story of the gift of diamonds to the queen is famous all over the world. Lord Dalhousie is said to have been furious at hearing this. Ultimately, Dalhousie officials sued the government of the country where the diamonds were located.

Even today there is a superstition that whoever wears a diamond brings good luck. When we see what happened to the men in diamonds, one can understand why the English were so vigilant, cutting off frogs’ wings and filling the Tower of London with gibrator monkeys as a reason for their superstitions.- In vain. No male heir to the English throne will wear it. To be sure, it is attached to the crown of the Queen Mother. Fifty years ago, when the coronet used for the funeral of her husband, George VI, was placed in the gun carriage carrying Queen Elizabeth’s mother to her funeral, it fell on this wreathed ground, and rumors of fate soon spread. 

Early Years in Scotland : The king lived in Scotland, in the Perthshire area, in his youth and twenties. In fact, the young man quickly became the center of attention, with the locals calling him “The Black Prince of Perthshire”. He became popular because of the large concerts, recordings and parties he held, which were popular over the years.

His conversion is still controversial, and it happened before he was 15 years old. Later he had serious doubts and regretted this decision and returned to Sikhism in 1853.

Life in England: Duleep Singh came to England in 1854 and joined the British Court. Queen Victoria treated his love with great reverence, like a boy. Before the East India Company bought a house in Wimbledon, Duleep Singh first stayed at the Claridge Hotel in London and later bought another house in Rohampton which was his home for three years. The Queen invited her to stay at the royal family in Osborne, where she played with her children, and she was photographed by Prince Albert, but she was photographed by the court architect Winterhalter.

He eventually became disillusioned with Roehampton and wanted to return to India, but East India Company advised him to go to continental Europe, which he did with Sir John Spencer Login and Lady Login. He was a member of the Photographic Society and later the Royal Photographic Society from 1855 until his death. Eventually he became disillusioned with Roehampton and wanted to return to India, but the East India Company advised him to go to Europe, which he did with Sir John Spencer’s Sign and Lady Sign. He was a member of the Photographic Society and later the Royal Photographic Society from 1855 until his death.


Mulgrave castle: From 1858 to 1862, Duleep Singh rented Mulgrave Castle near Whitby.


Meeting with his mother : When he was 18, Duleep’s mind there is a desire to take back his kingdom and to meet his mother. An English servant who was with Duleep for years and was his sympathizer. Duleep requested him to meet his mother. That servant would ask every traveler coming from India about Maharani Zinda. In this way a year passed while trying to trace Zinda. After a year, when that servant came to know about it, he told Duleep Singh that your mother was spending her days in the shelter of King Rana Jang Bahadur of Nepal. His age is 52 years. Due to separation from their son, their eyesight has gone blind due to crying. The hair on the head has turned white. She gets up and sits with the help of a stick. After hearing all this, Duleep Singh felt like going to meet his mother. Duleep Singh asked permission from Queen Victoria but the Queen did not agree. Duleep Singh kept talking. For a year, Duleep kept traveling through Queen Victoria to meet his mother. On 16 January 1861 Permission was finally granted after a year. But on one condition, that both of them can be found at any other place in India but not in Punjab. Duleep Singhsoon sent word of your arrival to his mother. 

maharaja duleep singh

When Duleep reached Calcutta he came to know that it would take three days for his mother to arrive. Couldn’t resist it. Next day he came to Raniganj. On the day his mother was to come, he got ready early in the morning and stood on the road. While standing in the afternoon, finally a small caravan was seen coming from a distance. He ran away and reached the convoy. When Zinda got down from the palanquin, Duleep Singh hugged her. Today Jind kaur was feeling sad about losing his eyesight. That even after so many years she could not see the face of her child. , That’s why she was guessing his appearance using her hands only. When he touched his son’s head, the ground slipped beneath his feet. Only then did Jind Kaur cover her son and push him away from her. Maharani Jind kaur’s joy of getting a son after many years turned into sadness. She would say in her voice, “Son, what have you done?” I never felt so sad the day my husband left me, even when my kingdom was taken away from me, I did not give up. But today because of your disguise, I am feeling defeated in front of the British, go away from my eyes. Then Duleep Singh says that all this has happened because of our separation. I promise that I will become a Sikh again. Don’t take me away from you. Zinda also realized that it was not his fault but the circumstances. Mother and son stayed in Calcutta for 3 months. Then Duleep brought his mother to London. When both of them reached London, the people there also felt the difference in Duleep Singh’s nature. Duleep Singh’s attitude now resembled that of a Maharaja. He had put the cases back. Maharani Jind kaur also told Duleep Singh about her personal properties. After seeing these changes in Duleep Singh ji, the British did not allow these two mother and son to live together even in London. Even though both lived in the same city, they lived at a distance of 7 miles. They could not meet without the permission of Queen Victoria. jind kaur could not bear the separation from Duleep Singh again. She was on her last breaths. While leaving she wanted to meet her son. But Queen Victoria did not allow Duleep to meet her. When the British were convinced that only a few years were left for Jind kaur, then Jind kaur was allowed to meet Duleep. While dying, Jind kaur had only one wish that his last rites should take place in Punjab. Duleep Singh handled the dead body on the advice of the doctor but he was not allowed to go to Punjab. He kept pleading with the queen. After 3 months, the Queen allowed Duleep to go to Punjab for a day. Duleep Singh had just reached the port by ship carrying his mother’s body. The soldiers surrounded him. It is said that new orders have come from the Queen that you cannot go to Punjab. Duleep felt very sad. Then he performed the rites of Mother Narmada River And Came to London with ashes 

maharaja duleep singh

Back to Sikhi : In 1864 Duleep Singh married Bamba Muller in Cairo and they lived at Elvedon Hall in Suffolk. He eventually became disillusioned with the wrath of the British and returned to Sikhism.

While in exile, he tried to learn more about Sikhism and was eager to return to India. Despite earlier attempts to forgive his captors, he rejoined his cousin Sardar Thakar Singh Sandhawalia, who left Amritsar for England on 28 September 1884, accompanied by his sons Narinder Singh and Gurdit Singh and Sikh granthi (priest) Pratap Singh. In fact, in fact. He also brought to India a list of properties owned by Sir Dulip Singh. All this contributed to his relationship with Sikhism.

The British government decided in 1886 that they had to return to India or reconvert to Sikhism. He returned home on 30 March 1886 despite the opposition of the India Office. But he was arrested at Aden, then part of the Aden Division, where he held the office of Indian Viceroy. A delegation sent by Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia, who had organized the Pahal ceremony in Bombay, failed to prevent an illegal reinstatement of Aden from India, which was much smaller and more symbolic. [28] Sir Dulip had to return to Europe.

live in Paris: He decided to return to India with his family, and after being locked up in Aden by the British authorities, he left his family and went to Paris, where he joined Ada Douglas Weatherill . They were married on April 28, 1889 in Paris. She stayed with him during his years in Paris and they both also travelled to St. Petersburg Russia He failed to convince the Tsar of the advantage of invading  India from the north and reinstalling him as ruler.

Died: Maharaja Duleep Singh died in Paris in 1893 at the age of 55. He visited India on only two brief, tightly controlled visits, in 1860 (to bring his mother to England) and in 1863 (to bury his mother). He could not go to Punjab even once. Which was their heart’s desire.

Given the symbolic value of the Punjab lion’s funeral and the growing resentment against British rule, Maharaja Duleep Singh’s desire to bring his body back to India could not be fulfilled due to fear of unrest. His body was brought back for Christian burial under the supervision of the India Office, at Elvedon Church, next to the tombs of his wife Maharani Bamba and his son, Prince Edward Albert Duleep Singh. The graves are to the west of the church.

Family : Duleep Singh married twice, first to Bamba Muller in 1864 and then to Ada Douglas Weatherill (1869–1930) in 1889. They had a total of eight children.

He had seven children from his marriage to Bumb. Their first child and male heir died one day in 1865. Others are:

Prince Victor Albert Jai Duleep Singh (10 January 1866 – 7 June 1918)
Prince Frederick Victor Duleep Singh (23 January 1868 – 15 August 1926)
Princess Bamba Sophia Jindon Duleep Singh (29 September 1869 – 10 March 1957)
Princess Catherine Hilda Duleep Singh (27 October 1871 – 8 November 1942)
Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep Singh (8 August 1876 – 22 August 1948)
Prince Albert Edward Alexander Duleep Singh (1879 – 1 May 1893)

He also had two children from his marriage to Weatherill.

Princess Pauline Alexandra Duleep Singh (26 December 1887 – 10 April 1941)
Princess Ada Irena Beryl Duleep Singh (25 October 1889 – 14 September 1926)
All eight sons died without legitimate issue, ending the direct line of Sikh royal families.

Princes Victor and Frederick, the two sons of Maharaja Sir Duleep Singh, who studied at Eton in the 1970s, are commemorated at Eton College in England.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh : The Lion of Punjab

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Legacy of a United Empire

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the legendary ruler of the Sikh Empire, is remembered as a visionary ruler who united the divided Sikh Muslims and established a fertile and powerful empire in the Punjab. This article examines the life, achievements and legacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, with an emphasis on his sons and their contributions to the Sikh Empire. By examining the life and lives of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his successors, we can understand the legacy left by this dynasty.

Early Life and the Rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Ranjit Singh Born on November 13, 1780, in Gujranwala, Punjab, Ranjit Singh belonged to the Sukerchakia Misl. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s father was Maha Singh who was the head of Sukarchakia Misal. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s grandfather’s name was Charat Singh who fought with Abdali in 18th century. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s grandfather’s name was Budh Singh and he got amrit from Guru Gobind Singh.  When Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was born, his father Sardar Maha Singh was fighting a war against the Chattis. As soon as they won the battle, a horse came running towards them from Gujranwala. When their soldier came and said that Singh Saab, a little Singh Saab has come to your house, then Maha Singh was very happy, shots were fired and cheers were raised. Then Maha Singh asks what the child’s name has been given, then the soldier says that Buddha Singh has given the name. Maha Singh then looks at the field and finds the dead bodies of his enemies. Maha Singh says today we have won the battle. This child’s name will be Ranjit Singh and not Buddha Singh. He was then named Ranjit Singh.

when Ranjit Singh was 5 years old, he got smallpox, then Maha Singh was going to occupy Jammu, he got the news that the child had a very bad disease, so they came back from there. The doctor again said that  This disease has a lot of effect on ranjit singh’s face. Ranjit Singh will not be able to see from one eye. Maha Singh joined his hands and acknowledged God.  when Maha Singh saw 5-year-old Ranjit Singh, his face was not worth seeing. The whole face was stained black. And his eye was suddenly closed. Then Maha Singh said, “My boy will be able to maintain my conquered territory. What did Maha Singh know that this child is going to rule the entire Punjab. This disease of Ranjit Singh had a great impact on his growth. he was a very thin child. His height was not very tall, his height was 5 feet 3 inches.  Ranjit Singh’s age was only 12 years. Then his father Sardar Maha Singh passed away. Ranjit Singh was made the head of Sukarchakiya Misal. Since Ranjit Singh was very young, his mother handled all the work. Then he was sent to study. Ranjit Singh had no interest in studies. His family used to send him to study, neither did he study himself nor did he let his friends study. On the way from home to study, he used to play hunting with his friends. Since his childhood, he was fond of playing swordsmanship and horse riding.

fight with father’s enemy : When Maharaja Ranjit Singh was 13 years old, he once went hunting. The hunter went too far in pursuit of an animal and entered the enemy’s territory. Hasmat Khan Chatha had come to play hunting from the front. Who was the enemy of Ranjit Singh’s father. When he saw 13-year-old Ranjit Singh. He says that today he has a chance, today he would kill Sukarchakia’s successor. Hasmat Khan attacked Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh stopped this attack, after that 13-year-old Ranjit Singh attacked Hasmat Khan’s head and threw it. And send a message to the Chathas that if you want the head of your chief, accept my submission and accept me as chief. From here Ranjit Singh’s discussions started to be noisy. Ranjit Singh started occupying other areas. 

Become maharaja of lahore : Ranjit Singh was now 19 years old and had achieved victories in many areas. when Ahmad Shah Abdali’s grandson Shah Jaman occupied the fort of Lahore, there he robbed and beat people a lot and their belongings were stolen, and their dignity was also played with. 19-year-old Ranjit Singh reaches outside the fort of Lahore and challenges Abdali’s grandson, that Abdali’s grandsons come out and Chadat Singh’s grandson is challenging you. Abdali’s grandson did not go out in fear. Shah Zamaan remained hidden inside the fort with his troops. From there, Ranjit Singh was allowed to return. After some months, Ranjit Singh drove him away from Punjab so much that he did not enter Punjab again. Then the people of Lahore wrote a letter to Ranjit Singh that now you should come to Lahore Fort and we will accept you as king.  at the age of 19, Ranjit Singh went and captured the fort of Lahore and was declared the Maharaja. Such a 19-year-old youth became the king of Lahore. A year later he was crowned. When Maharaja Ranjit Singh was crowned and he was asked to sit on the throne, Maharaja Ranjit Singh refused to sit on the throne saying that I will not sit on the throne who has oppressed the Sikhs so much. Throughout his reign thereafter, he sat on a sheet or in a chair listening to people’s complaints.

Marriages:  Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s first marriage took place in Batale in 1796 with Matab Kaur, daughter of Sardar Jai Singh of Kanhaiya Misal and daughter of S. Gurbaksh Singh. Maharaja Sher Singh and Kanwar Tara Singh were born from her womb. She died in 1813.

their second marriage. got happened with Datar Kaur, the daughter of ran singh Nakai Rais, in 1798. Her original name was Raj Kaur. But because Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s mother’s name was also Raj Kaur, it was named Datar Kaur. Maharaja Kharak Singh, the elder son of Maharaja Sahib was born from her womb. Maharaja Sahib used to call it as “Nakayan”. The Queen died in 1818.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh got married to Jind Kaur, daughter of Sardar Manna Singh Aulakh Jat, a resident of village Char, district Sialkot (Pakistan). Maharaja Dalip Singh was born from her womb. After taking over the state of Punjab, the British imprisoned her first in Sheikhupure (Pakistan) and then in the fort of Chunar (Uttar Pradesh). She left this fort in the guise of a fakir and went to Nepal. She lived there with dignity. His son Maharaja Dalip Singh was taken to England by the British. She reached England to meet him in 1861. He died there in 1891.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s fourth marriage took place in the year 1811 with Sardarni Ratan Kaur, the widow of Sardar Sahib Singh Rais Gujarat. Kanwar Multana Singh was born from her womb.

Maharaja Sahib’s fifth marriage took place with Daya Kaur. Kanwar Kashmira Singh and Kanwar Pasora Singh were born from her womb. He died in 1843

Army History: After taking up his position in Lahore, Ranjit Singh thought of expanding the boundaries of his empire to become the Emperor of the Panjab in the true sense of the word. There were several hostile elements that the Emperor had to control. The Nawab of Kasur did not make up his mind to confirm Ranjit Singh as the ruler of Lahore. Along with Sahib Singh, leader of Bhangi Misl, he thought of challenging the power of Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh himself led an army to overthrow the Bhangi ruler of Gujarat and another group was placed under his trusted friend, Fateh Singh Kallianwala. Both the Bhangi chief and the Kasur nawab were subdued and accepted the supremacy of Ranjit Singh.

Ranjit Singh then turned to the holy city of Amritsar. With the help of his soldiers and his mother-in-law, Rani Sada Kaur, he went to Amritsar and attacked the Gobindgarh fort where the Bhangi forces were captured. Taking out the attacking army, Bhangi’s army started firing on Ranjit Singh’s forces. To avoid any damage to the Harmandar Sahib (Golden Temple) and Akal Takhat in the fierce battle, Ranjit Singh did not fire back but managed to secure the surrender of the Bhangi army through negotiations with the help of Akali Phoola Singh . He annexed Amritsar to his empire and brought the famous Zamzama weapon to Lahore, which proved very useful to the Emperor in his future military campaigns. He paid homage to Harmandir and Akal Takhat and made valuable offerings in gratitude

When he won the territory of Afghanistan in 1805, he wanted to make a treaty. Maharaja Ranjit Singh used to say that those who brought the thigh to the door of Somnath temple in India, should return it to us. 800 years ago, Ghajni had taken him to Darwaja and now Maharaja Ranjit had brought him back. Bhai Sangat Singh ji’s family took money from their treasury and took Guru Gobind Singh ji’s kalgi from them. Every morning after getting up and taking a bath, he used to apply Kalgi to his forehead and then go to work in the state department.

1809 – 1823: Expansion of the Sikh Empire to include Multan, Peshawar and Kashmir and defeat of the Afghans

i) Treaty of Friendship with British: Ranjit Singh’s continued influence in the neighboring territories greatly alarmed the British Government, who by then had conquered the entire sub-continent, halting their routes only at the Sutlej river with the Sikhs. So the British intervened to stop Ranjit Singh’s advance eastwards by annexing the Sutlej states. These states also feared the emperor’s expansionist policies and signed and took refuge under the British.

A subsidiary of the British Government. In 1809, Ranjit Singh signed a treaty of friendship and peace with the British in which he agreed not to interfere in the affairs of the Sutlej chiefs. In return, the British government recognized Ranjit Singh’s sovereignty over the Punjab and agreed to extend it to the northwest.

ii) Conquest of North West: Ranjit Singh was able to enter this region while advancing to the eastern region under the Treaty of 1809.​​​​​​​​ ​​​​ After consolidating his hold on Kasur, Sialkot and Sheikhupura, Ranjit Singh turned to Multan, which, apart from its strategic military importance, was also an important commercial centre. Ranjit Singh sent an army of 20,000 men under the command of his son Kharak Singh and General Diwan Chand. The artillery, including the Samsama cannon, was under the command of General Elahi Bakhsh. Ranjit Singh’s army successfully captured the forts of Muzaffargarh and Khangarh. Muzaffar Khan put up a strong resistance but Multan was killed in the attack and captured by the invading army. He then marched into Hazara and soon captured Peshawar. The tables were turned against the Afghan invaders for the first time in Indian history when one of India’s native kings brought the most violent tribes of the north-west frontier under control through his wisdom and bravery. In 1819, Ranjit Singh donated the beautiful valley of Kashmir.
It was at this point that Hari Singh Nalwa, his trusted general, extended the empire across the Afghan border to the Khyber Pass. This was a historic achievement because after that there would not be a foreign invasion from Afghanistan into the subcontinent.

1823 – 1839 : Further consolidation and expansion.

It was during this phase that General Zorawar Singh, acting under the military command of Gulab Singh (a Dogra minister in Ranjit Singh’s cabinet), led extensive military expeditions into Ladakh (1834), Baltistan (1840) and Tibet (1841).

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab enjoyed international fame mainly because of the Sikh army, which at that time was equal to any armed force in the world.

Once a 20-year-old youth named Mohanlal Kashmiri was on his way to Central Asia in 1832 when he happened to attend a royal durbar on a national festival in Mashhad, Iran. The chief prince was Abbas Mirza, the father of the King of Iran. The prince asked Mohanlal if Ranjit Singh’s court was a good match for what he had just seen and if the Sikh army could be compared to the Sirbas (regular Iranian army) in terms of discipline and bravery.

Mohanlal replied simply but firmly that Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s durbar tent was made of Kashmiri shawls and the floor was made of the same precious material; As for his army, if Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa were to cross the Indus, the king wished to pardon his native Tabriz immediately.

General of the Emperor: Some of the most important and famous names include (among others):

Hari Singh Nalwa  

Diwan Mokham Chand

Gulab Singh Pahuvindhya – The Famous General Belonging to the Family Tree of Shaheed Baba Deep Singh Ji of Saheedan Misl[ –

Akali Phula Singh

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia

Sham Singh Athariwala

Gems and Relics from the ‘Toshakhana’ (treasure house) of Maharaja Ranjit Singh : Maharaja Ranjit Singh created a unique collection of jewelry and artifacts. The world famous Koh-i-Noor is the most valuable in the jewelery category and is a part of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s brand of kalgi. In addition to the remains of the Sikh Guru, Toshkhana Maharaja also housed the shoes, staff and books of the Prophet Muhammad that his father Maha Singh received from Pir Muhammad Chatha after his defeat in the war. in Rasulnagar. According to popular tradition, the Emperor showed the same respect for the relics of the Prophet Muhammad that he showed for the relics of the Sikh Gurus. The Maharaja started his day by listening to Gurbani in the morning and reciting Guru Granth Sahib ji steps (orders of the day). Before starting the day’s proceedings, the Maharaja respectfully placed Guru Gobind Singh’s sacred garland on his eyes and forehead. He had such deep faith in Guru Granth Sahib that he never took any important decision without seeking guidance from the spiritual scriptures.

In keeping with the same tradition as the Khalsa Panth, Ranjit Singh neither wore a crown nor sat on a throne.

The great wealth and riches of the Maharaja are not only the envy of the kings of India today but also the officers of the East India Company. The following account by Henry Edward Fane, nephew of Colonel Wade ADC, British Political Agency stationed in Ludhiana, describes the British astonishment at the Maharajah’s impressive collection: impressive. The minister’s son, especially his favorite at the time (Hira Singh) was a real goldsmith. There is mass, neck, hands and feet. Chain, arm and girdle, covered with pearls, diamonds and rubies, one. above the other, so thick that it is difficult to see anything underneath.”

The emperor always showed great respect to the religious places respected by his subjects who are Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. The emperor made tax-free donations to religious places and made expensive donations to Javalamukhi Mandir and Baba Farid temple in Pak Pattan. Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar received special attention and respect from the Emperor. Under the order of the Emperor, the entire temple was decorated with beautiful decorations and flowers and the walls and roof of Harmandir Sahib were covered with gold, known as Swaran Mandir or Golden Temple. temple Whenever the Emperor visited the Harmandir Sahib to seek the Guru’s blessings, he offered a valuable gift, which was kept in the Toshakhane (treasury) of the Harmandir Sahib. Umbrella inlaid with 20 kilograms of gold and studded with diamonds, emeralds, pearls and rubies, jeweled bracelets, sword with a jeweled gold handle.

And peacocks made of pearls, sapphires and gold and other precious gems with diamonds, rubies and other precious stones were offered by the Emperor to the temple.

He was responsible for scientific progress and promoting industry and commerce. The Kashmiri pashmina shawl industry was revived and the shawls started being exported to European countries. Multan silk became famous. Existing roads have been repaired and made safer and new unpaved roads open up the city. The condition of small towns such as Adina Nagar (Gurdaspur), Phillaur, Amanabad has improved a lot. The Punjab witnessed prosperity and glory under Ranjit Singh

humble king: Once there was famine in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji, the crops died. So Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji opened the treasury of his state and gave permission to take as much grain as you can. And when a hungry old cobbler heard, he and his grandson filled a very heavy bag of grain. This pand was not taken from him and his grandson. And Maharaja Ji was standing on one side in ordinary clothes and he asked the cobbler to pick up your pand and leave your house? And the cobbler said yes. And Maharaja Ranjit Singh took the pand and took it to his house. When the Maharaja kept this pand in his house, then he saw that it was Maharaja Ranjit Singh, then the cobbler started falling at his feet. And Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji talked to the cobbler and said that you are my wings with the help of which I want to fly.

Interact with Children : Once the children were playing and plucking berries and fruits. At that time Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was passing by and this stone accidentally hit Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji. The army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji caught that child and said that you killed Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji and then they said that we had beaten a berry to break a berry. If she gives, then I am the Maharaja, so I also have a duty to give something. In this way, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji gave gold coins to the child and asked him to play.


Kindness of Maharaja Ranjit Singh:  He was so kind that he used to kill the man only in the war, when the war was won, he would also hug his enemy, saying that if you were killed, you would be killed in the war, now killing you would also give them money in return so that he don’t starve If he cannot keep his enemy hungry, then how can he let the people of Punjab stay hungry.  They used to say don’t call me Maharaja, call me Bhai Sahib. 


Punjab ‘s position when Maharaja Ranjit Singh take over: When Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji saved Punjab, Punjab was very unbalanced and scattered, Maharaja Ranjit Singh united Punjab and made it very beautiful. For the last hundred years, Afghans used to come and occupy Punjab every third day, but during the 40-year reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, not a single person came from outside and occupied Punjab. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the first person to chase away the Afghan invaders from India. They not only chased them away but also conquered many areas of Afghanistan and found them in Punjab.

Diversity of Khalsa raaj: Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a Sikh and the name of his kingdom was Khalsa Raj and the kingdom of his court was Khalsa, but he never oppressed Hindus or Muslims, nor harassed them. There were brave Sikhs like Hari Singh Nalwa in his army, and ministers like Fakir Azizuddin in his government, and wise Hindus like Diwan Mohakam Chand in his court, who brought Char Chand to his court. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had the Holy Quran translated into Punjabi for the first time, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was such a secular king. He served gold for Harminder Sahib Similarly, they built the two holiest temples (among others) in the Sikh religion. These are Takht Sri Patna Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, and Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, where Guru Gobind Singh left his human form, in Nanded, Maharashtra in 1708 and  they also helped in temples and mosques.

 also donated a lot for temples and mosques. When Maharaja Ranjit Singh was crowned, he came to bow down in two mosques of Lahore.

Death : On June 27, 1839, due to a terrible illness, the greatest king of the world Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji gave up his life. And 10 years after his death, the British took possession of Punjab.

Kohinoor : The glory of the treasure of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji, Kohinoor. Kohinoor was not worth the money. The diamond went to whoever had the strength to take it.
The first diamond mines were in India. The Kohinoor diamond is known for its beauty and strength. This diamond was found in the mine of Gol Khanda. A curse is also attached to it that the person who wears it will be destroyed. The same happened.

it was given to Shah Jahan after it came out of the mine. When this diamond was in Shah Jahan’s possession, Shah Jahan cut this Italian diamond to increase its brilliance. Means the rub from the outside of the diamond brought the shine. This diamond of 793 carats remained 186 carats. After that this diamond came to Aurangzeb and after Aurangzeb’s death came to his family. After that this diamond went to Nader Shah when he captured Delhi. Ahmad Shah Abdali took away this diamond from him.

Nader Shah named this diamond Kohinoor. Nader Shah got this diamond after winning the war. Nader Shah died a few years after getting Kohinoor. Ahmed Shah Abdali has permission to have this diamond with Shah Sujaa. When Shah Sujaa reached Sri Nagar and its king Juwar Khan found out that the most valuable diamond was with Shah Sujaa, he imprisoned Shah Sujan in 1817 but he kept this diamond hidden and Shah Suja’s wife I thought that only Maharaja Ranjit Singh could help me in Asia

After this she meets Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji and says that my husband has been imprisoned in Shergari fort. Which is in Sri Nagar. If you release my husband from that prison. Then I will give you the most precious diamond. After which Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji attacked Sri Nagar 2 times. The first time it was snowing and the second time when they attacked in the summer, Hari Singh Naluaji and Bahadur Singh were with them. After which Shergari was attacked. 350 Sikhs were martyred while conquering Shergarh. He was cremated in Srinagar. Gurudwara Shaheed Ganj is there today. After that Shah Suja was released from there and brought to Lahore, then Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji said that I have fulfilled my promise and now you fulfill your promise and give us the Kohinoor diamond as promised. Being a precious diamond, Shah Sujaa Mukergaya and Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji said that you are in my prison, if I want, I can take this diamond even by imprisoning you and your wife, but a Guru’s Sikh does not do that, I will not take advantage of your compulsion. I want you to tell me how much it costs to sell that diamond. That diamond was worth 200,000 stamps. Maharaja Ranjit Singh added that diamond to his kingdom by giving 200,000 seals. The British took this diamond from Dilip Singh. Today it is kept in England. This diamond went to the British in 1849 and an Englishman named Dalogi found it and gave it to a slave of the East India Company. The people of the East India Company gave this diamond to Queen Victoria for some money. And Rani J cut it from 186 carats to make it 105.6 carats in 1852. Queen Victoria used to wear it only on special occasions. The queen has clearly written that no king can wear it, only the king’s wife can wear it. At that time, most of the places were ruled by Britain. Later the British rule gradually ended. The British cut this diamond into 2 parts to end the curse of this diamond. After that something got better. The statue has 6 broken pieces today

Maharaja Ranjit Singh Empire:  Is it a military monarchy? The monarchy was for centuries the only form of government in India and the Sikhs, although bound by democratic ideals, could not contemplate a representative government. Ranjit Singh refused to sit on the throne. His name was never written on the coin (but in the Guru’s name). Nanakshahi Coin. At that time rate of 1 nanakshahi coin is equal to 13 uk pounds. He kept the military in check and never used it as an instrument of tyranny. He established a Sikh state in the sense that the rulers were Sikhs holding power on behalf of the Khalsa, and the military was predominantly Sikh. It is in fact a heterogeneous state based on religious harmony and community cooperation which maintains relations with ordinary people. There is no dictatorship of one community over another. He said to Faqir Aziz ud Din, “God wanted me to see all religions with one eye, so he took out the light from the other.”

Ranjit Singh’s government was in fact characterized by a scrupulous adherence to rare rules of public conduct and social ethics, for example when the victorious army of the Khalsa passed through the streets of Peshawar, it gave strict orders to his Sardar (noble title – used to indicate the leader or leader of a race) to maintain moderation according to Sikh tradition, not to damage any mosque, not to insult any woman and not to destroy any crops. Do your best to follow the Master’s command: “Be patient in the midst of power, humble in the midst of honor.”

By all accounts, Ranjit Singh was a statesman who brought order and stability out of anarchy and chaos and made Punjab a force to be reckoned with.

Known for religious tolerance, social harmony and justice, the state of Ranjit Singh was the most progressive state in India.

Hari Singh Nalwa (biography)

Hari Singh Nalwa

Hari Singh Nalwa: The Fearless General of the Sikh Empire

IntroductionHari Singh Nalwa, the Fearless General of the Sikh Empire, is renowned for his unmatched courage, strategic brilliance, and unwavering dedication to the Sikh cause. Hari Singh Nalwa emerged as one of the most formidable military leaders of his time. This article delves into the life, achievements, and legacy of Hari Singh Nalwa, shedding light on his military campaigns, administrative abilities, and his indelible impact on the Sikh Empire.

Early Life and Rise to Prominence: Hari Singh Nalwa was born in 1 October, 1791 AD, at Gujranwala. , he is belong to the  Uppal khatri family.  His ancestors were belong from majithia  and served Sukarchakia misl . His grandfather ( Sardar Bishan Singh) was martyred from Ahmad Shah Abdali’s army at a place called Kopar Hira.  His father S. Gurdial Singh was commander of the forces of sukarchakiya misl. He was barely seven when his father died.  mata dharam kaur takes him to her parents house ,  gave full attention to his education , horsemanship and weapon training. hari singh nalwa ji known these languages:  english , farsi, Pashto.

Meeting with Maharaja Ranjit Singh: In the Basant Panchami Darbar of 1805 AD, Maharaja Ranjit Singh saw Hari Singh, who used weapons in a professional way. Maharaja Ranjit Singh recruited him as one of his personal attendants. Once, when he went hunting in the forest with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, he saw a lion there! Hari Singh said to Maharaja Ranjit Singh that I have the right to fight him before you, and Hari Singh stepped forward to face the lion, but the sword was out of his hand at that time. What he did was astonishing! They hunted that lion with their kirpan and tore his jaw in half! While the pressure of the lion’s jaw is 900 pounds to 1100 pounds per square! From this, you can guess how much life will be in their arms.

Meeting with the English officer: An English officer said in his biography that when we were going to meet Hari Singh Nalwa ji, we were imagining in our minds that the Sikh fighters were great, but they would be silly and artless. We will trap this in our diplomacy. But when we met with Hari Singh Nalwa, his level of knowledge was so high that the ground slipped under our feet. They opened the secrets of the East India Company in front of us—the secret things our main leadership did not tell the rest of the officers and the army. All the usual tactics fail in the face of This was the status of Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa.

Military Genius and Battlefield Victories: Hari Singh Nalwa’s military genius and battlefield victories solidified his reputation as an unmatched warrior. Nalwa had successful experience in multiple battles, defeating Afghan tribes and kings. Like the battle of Kasur (1807), Sialkot (1808), Attack (1813), Multan (1818), Shopian (1819), Mangal (1821), Nowshera (1823), Sirikot (1824), Sayu (1827), Peshawar (1837), and Jamrud (1837), This section explores his strategic brilliance, tactical acumen, and remarkable triumphs in numerous battles and campaigns. From the fierce battles in the northwestern frontier regions to the conquest of key territories, Hari Singh Nalwa’s leadership played a pivotal role in expanding the Sikh Empire’s boundaries.


Battle of Kasur (1807): Hari Singh’s first significant participation in the Sikh conquest, leading an independent force, was during the capture of Qasr in 1807. The location has long been an embarrassment to Ranjit Singh’s power, as it is close to Ranjit Singh’s capital city of Lahore. He was caught on his fourth attempt. The attack was led by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Jodh Singh Ramgarhia. During the campaign, Sardar displayed remarkable courage and dexterity. Sardar was awarded the Order of Jagir in recognition of his achievements.

Battle of Sialkot (1807):Ranjit Singh appointed Hari Singh Nalwa to retake Sialkot from the ruler Jiwan Singh. This was his first battle under independent command. The two armies fought for several days, eventually being won by 17-year-old Hari Singh. Narwa led his army to victory and planted a Sikh flag atop the fort.

Battle of Attock(1813): Fort Attock was an important supply point for all armies crossing the Indus. In the early 19th century, Afghans appointed by the Kingdom of Kabul took control of the fort and much of the territory along the frontier. The battle was fought against Wazir Fateh Khan and his brother Dost Mohammad Khan on behalf of Shah Mahmud of Kabul, under the command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s general Dewan Mokam Chand, against Sikh on the banks of the Indus River. The Christians fought and won. Besides Hari Singh Nalwa, Hukam Singh Ataliwala, Sham Singh, Khalsa Fateh Singh Alwalia and Behmam Singh Mariwala took active part in this battle. With Atok’s conquest, the neighboring regions of Hazara-i-Kallag and Gandgarh became Sikh tributaries. In 1815 Sherbaz Khan of Gundgar challenged the authority of Hari Singh Narwa and was defeated.

Conquest of Mahmudkot (1816) : In preparation for the conquest of the heavily fortified Mankhela, Maharaja Ranjit his Singh decided to approach Mankhela from its southern tip. After Baisakhi in 1816, Topkarna headed for Mahmudkot, accompanied by seven Parthans, Misl Diwan Chand, Ilahi Bakhsh, Fateh Singh Arwalia, Nihal Singh Attaliwala and Hari Singh Nalwa. When news of the conquest arrived, the Maharaja was overjoyed at the success of Sikh weapons and celebrated this victory by firing cannons. Two years later, on the way to Multan, the Sikhs captured the forts of Khangarh and Muzaffargarh.

Peshawar becomes a tributary (1818): When Shah Mahmud’s son Shah Kamran murdered Balakzai Wazir Fateh Khan in August 1818, the Sikhs took advantage of the ensuing turmoil and an army formally crossed the Indus and entered the kingdom of Kabul (now Afghanistan). entered the summer capital of Peshawar. first time. Hari Singh Nalwa was then entrusted to Peshawar to maintain and keep the pressure on the Sikh.

Mita Tiwana becomes Jagir (1818): In early 1819 Hari Singh accompanied Lord Diwan Chand to collect tribute from the Nawabs of Mankhela. Having completed his mission, Diwan Chand crossed the Chenab River with Topkana and set up camp at Pindi Batian near Siniot. He was asked to leave Hari Singh stationed outside Nurpur and Mita Tiwana. Hari Singh must have achieved great success. This was because the Maharajah had just given Sardar all the possessions of the Tiwana chief in Jagir.

Kashmir becomes part of Punjab (1819): In April 1819 Sikh forces marched on Kashmir. On this occasion, Prince Karak Singh took the nominal command. Misl Diwan Chand led the vanguard and Hari Singh Nalwa acted as the rear guard to support the lead forces. The 3rd Division, under the personal command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, quickly transported supplies and handed them over to the frontline units. On the morning of July 5, 1819, Sikh formations advanced to the sound of trumpets. Heavy fighting broke out between the two armies, and the Sikhs conquered Kashmir. Cheers erupted in Sikh camps and the cities of Lahore and Amritsar lit up for three nights in a row. Thus ended five centuries of Muslim rule in Kashmir. Two years later, as governor of Kashmir, Hari Singh Nalwa put down a rebellion by one of the most vexing Haha chieftains, Ghulam Ali.

Battle of Pakhli (1819): Under Afghan rule, the Hazara-i-Kallag, Gandhar and Ghahal regions were ruled from Attok. Kashmir income was collected from Pakuri, Damtaur and Darband. Several attempts by Sikhs to make money from the Hazara-e-Kallag have not only failed, but have resulted in the loss of prominent Sikh rulers and commanders. After the Sikh conquest of Kashmir, tribute was paid from Pakri, Damtaur and Darband.[49] Returning from the Kashmir Valley to the Punjab plains, Hari Singh and his companions followed the traditional Kafila (caravan) route through Pakuri to collect tribute from the region. The Sikh demand for Nasrana has, as usual, resulted in “fighting and grievances.” However, the party succeeded in their mission.

Battle of Mangal (1821): Hari Singh’s greatest success in the Hazara area came two years later. Having successfully completed his duties as Governor-General of Kashmir, he left the valley and crossed the Kishanganga River at Muzaffarabad with 7000 infantry. Hari Singh Narwa successfully traversed the dangerous mountainous terrain, but when he reached Mangal he found his entourage blocking his path. Mangal, Urasa’s ancient capital, was home to the chieftains of the Jadun tribe, who now rule over the entire Damtaur territory. Hari Singh required the tribesmen to pass through his territory, but taxed all Kashmiri goods and treasures they brought back. All merchant Kafir pay this toll. Hari Singh’s assertion that the goods he carried was not for trading purposes was not accepted. When negotiations failed, we had to go to war. Hari Singh then joined the Sikh forces in preparation for an attack on Mankhela, but after he collected fines from all the houses and built a fort near here.

Battle of Mankera (1822): Sindh Sagar Doab was ruled mainly by Mankhela and Mita Tiwana. A relative of the Durrani sect, Nawab Hafiz Ahmad Khan, had great influence in the region. Besides Manquera, he commanded a large area defended by twelve forts. As Afghan control of Kabul weakened, Attok, Mankhela, Mita Tiwana, and Hushab governorates declared independence. Ranjit Singh celebrated Dushera Ravi in 1821 at Shedera across the river. The governor of Kashmir, Hari Singh, was most familiar with the area to which the maharajah now had his eyes. Narwa was hurriedly summoned to join the Lahore army en route to the Indus. The Maharajah and his army were crossing the Jhelam River when Hari Singh Nalwa joined Mita Tiwana with the Kashmir platoon. In early November, the Sikhs launched an offensive operation.

Nawab Muhammad Khan, the predecessor of Nawab Hafiz Ahmad, established Mangera in 12 forts: Hyderabad, Maujigarh, Fatehpur, Pipal, Dariya Khan, Kanpur, Jandawara, Karol, Dhrewala, Bakar, Dingana and Chauvala. surrounded. Sikh forces captured these forts and soon became the only place Mangera itself could conquer. A few years ago, Mankhela’s Nawab was an active participant in the reduction of Mita Tiwana. The Tiwanans, now vassals of Hari Singh Nalwa, took an enthusiastic part in giving back to the Nawab. The force was divided into his three parts (his one column under the command of Hari Singh) and each column entered Mangera’s territory by a different route. The three columns met near Mankhela Town and captured various points along the way. Mankhela is besieged and Narwa’s forces are to the west of the fort.

Nawab Dera was allowed to go to Ismail Khan and given to him as a jagir. His descendants occupied the area until 1836.

Battle of Naushera (Naushera): “Hari Singh Nalwa wears full armor and assumes a military stance.”
first Sikh entered Peshawar in 1818 but did not occupy the area. They were content to collect tribute from Yal Muhammad, governor of Balaksay. Asim Khan, the half-brother of Yar Muhammad of Kabul, who completely denied any favors for the Sikhs, decided to march at the head of a large army to prove the honor of the Afghans. Azim Khan wanted to avenge the pleas of the Peshawar brothers and the loss of Kashmir, he thought. Hari Singh Narwa was the first to cross the Indus at Attok and reached the Sikh garrison at Khairabad. He was accompanied by Dewan Kirpa Ram, the Maharajah’s teenage son Khalsa Shah Singh, and 8,000 soldiers.

Afghan forces were expected near Naushera on the banks of the Kabul (Landai) river. Hari Singh’s immediate plan was to capture the Fort Yousafzai of Jahangira, north of Randai, and Hattak territory of Akora Hattak, to the south. Jahangira is a masonry fortress with very sturdy towers, to which the Yousafzais of Afghanistan made a tough promise.

After Hari Singh had successfully reduced the Afghan tribal strongholds on either side of the river, Ranjit Singh departed from the fort of Attock. He crossed the Landai River at a ford below Akora, and set up his camp near the fort of Jehangira. The famous army commander Akali Phula Singh and Gurkha commander Bal Bahadur, with their respective troops, accompanied the Maharaja. The Afghan Barakzais witnessed the battle from across the river. They were not able to cross the Landai river.[54] Eventually, the inheritors of Ahmed Shah Abdali’s legacy withdrew from the area, toward the direction of Jalalabad.

Battle of Sirikot (1824): Less than ten miles north-west of Haripur is Sirikot. The village of Mashwani was strategically placed in a valley on top of the north-eastern peak of the Gandhgarh range, making its protected location a haven for rebel warlords from across the region. Before the rains of 1824, Hari Singh Nalwa marched towards Sirikot. It was another six months before the effort yielded decisive results. Sardar almost lost his life in this campaign. In the winter of 1824, Ranjit Singh’s military campaign was planned towards Peshawar and Kabul. While stationed at Wazirabad, he received an arji (written petition) from Sardar Hari Singh , informing him that he and his men were outnumbered by one Sikh to ten Afghanis. Ranjit Singh proceeded to [Rohtas], thence to Sirikot via [Rawalpindi] and [Sarai Kala]. On news of the approach of the Sikh army, the Afghans retreated.

Battle of Saidu (1827): Portrait of Hari Singh Nalwa wearing a red turban, leaning on a baluster and armed with a black-sheathed sword.
Yusufzai’s savior came in the form of Syed Ahmad , who despite being a ‘Hindaki’ was accepted as their leader. Buddha Singh Sandhanwalia, a force of 4,000 cavalry, was deployed towards Attock to help suppress the Yusufzai rebellion. The Maharaja’s brief required him to go to Peshawar and collect tribute from Yar Mohammad Khan Barakzai. Buddha Singh first heard of Syed after crossing the Indus and encamping near the fort of Khairabad. Ranjit Singh was still ill when the news reached him of Syed’s arrival at the head of a large army of Yusufzai peasants. Yusufzai’s heroic defense at the Battle of Nowshera was still vivid in his mind. On receiving this news, he immediately mobilized all the troops he could muster and immediately marched towards the border.

Although the Barakzais of Peshawar outwardly professed allegiance to the Sikhs, in reality they were with other Afghans. The Sayyids marched from Peshawar to Nowshera. Sardar Buddha Singh wrote to the Syed and explained his intentions. Syed replied that he wanted to take the fort of Attock first and engage Buddha Singh in the battle.

Hari Singh Nalwa was guarding the fort of Atta with the intention of preventing the Sayyid and his men from crossing the river until reinforcements arrived from Lahore. The news of Syed’s number of Jihadis in the thousands reached the Sikhs. On 14 Fagun (23 February) 1827, a war broke out between the Syeds and the Sikhs. The operation started from around 10 am. Sikhs say Allah hu akbar, or “God is great,” bole so nihal, sat shri akal, or “those who affirm the name of God, the only immortal truth, will be fulfilled.” . Ironically, the opposing forces claimed the glory of the same Almighty God, before they started killing each other, in different languages. The shooting continued for about two hours. The Sikhs charged their opponents, routed them and continued the victorious pursuit for six miles with all their guns, revolvers and camp equipment. 150,000

Capture of Peshawar (1834): The capture of the great city of Peshawar and its ruined fort, Bala Hisar, shows that the region was a reflection of the great prestige of Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa. Masson reached Peshawar just in time for the capture of the city by the Sikhs. According to his eyewitness accounts, the Afghans withdrew from the region and took control of Peshawar without a struggle from Hari Singh Nalwa.

Dost Muhammad Khan withdrew (1835): Hari Singh Nalwa was the governor of Peshawar when Dost Mohammad came in person at the head of a large army to challenge the Sikhs. After defeating Shah Shuja at Kandahar, in the first quarter of 1835, Dost Mohammad proclaimed himself Padshah (King), called for jihad and set out from Kabul to capture Peshawar from the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh directed his generals to entertain the Afghans through negotiations and win over Sultan Mohammad Khan. He instructed them that without reason, if attacked, not to make a general engagement until they arrived.

Hari Singh Nalwa and other Sikh chieftains requested Ranjit Singh to be allowed to have relations with the Afghans. 30 Baisakh (10 May 1835), Sardar Hari Singh, Raja Gulab Singh, Misr Sukh Raj, Sardar Attar Singh Sandhanwalia, Jamadar Khushal Singh, Raja Kalan (Dhyan Singh), Mahashay Adalat, Signor Avitabile, Sardar Tej Singh, Dhunkal Singh, Artillery Elahi Bakhsh, Sardar Jawla Singh and Sardar Lehna Singh Majithia were ordered to move. The army spread out in five divisions and formed a semi-circle in front of the Amir’s camp. Sardar Hari Singh proposed that the water of twelve rivers flowing towards Dost Mohammad Khan’s camp should be dammed. When the Ghazis appeared, Sardar Hari Singh started firing his guns. However, the Maharaja forbade him to participate in the war and sent his lawyers to negotiate with the Amir.

Dost Mohammad Khan was assured that the Sikhs would enforce a truce as long as their advocates were not in his camp. He accused Fakir Aziz-ud-Din of “using much language, many leaves but few fruits”. With Jabbar and Sultan both half-brothers lost beyond reach, Dost Mohammad decided to retire from the field with his entire army, weapons and equipment. He left at night, ensuring that the Fakirs would not return to the Sikh camp until he passed through the Khyber Pass.

Battle of Michni
A Hindu once complained about the theft of his spouse by Dela Khan of Michni while Hari Singh Nalwa was hunting in the vicinity of Michni with 100 horsemen. Later more Hindus came forward about the atrocities of Khan. Learning about all this, Hari Singh Nalwa  agreed to help the Hindus.

He attacked the Khan’s residence at night with his 100 horsemen. Dela Khan’s army numbered over 5,000, but he fought with only 500 men in the first half of the war. There are two accounts of what happened next. First it is mentioned that Dela Khan was killed in battle and then his son attacked the Sikhs with the rest of the army, in which he was also killed. Another says that the Khan apologized and offered to return the bride, only to be punished.

The bride was returned to her husband and both converted to Sikhism. The bride was Bibi Harsharan Kaur, a Sikh who later became chief during the martyrdom of Harisingh Nalwa.

Brahmin in Hari Singh Nalwa’s court: When Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji had won the area of Michni and built a fort there, and Hari Singh Nalua ji was holding his court, then a Brahmin in the court came with a request, Sardar Saab, that we were going to take our son‘s marriage. On the way, Pathana will pick up our bride, and they have to take her and hand her over to their leader, and we know that whenever Pathans pick up a girl and, after being raped with her, they kill her. So she never came back to her family. Hari Singh ji asked the Brahmin how many Pathans were there and how many were Baratis. And the Brahmin replied that there were 5 Pathans and 50–60 Baratis. Hearing this, Hari Singh smiled and said, If 50 of you did not save the honour of the house, then the same situation would have happened to you. So Hari Singh ji attacked the Pathan area, taught them a lesson, and brought the baby to safety, and now it was time for the lady to go. Hari Singh Nalwa ji says to the girl, “Sister What if we have taken care of you? Now you can go to your home with your husband.” That lady caught the word sister and said, General, you called me your sister. And I have accepted you as my brother, and you did not send me with such a fool, a jackass; you [her husband] did not want to save my respect before, and even now, you will save me today. If someone like this kind of animal picks me up again, no one will say whether they will pick up anyone’s sister-in-law or anyone’s wife. Everyone has to say that Hari Singh has taken Nalua’s sister away. I don’t want to go with those who don’t protect my honour. At that time, that girl did amrit paan and became a Sikhni, so her name was kept as Bibi Harsharan Kaur.

Jamrud (Khyber Pass) (1836): After Dussehra celebrations at Amritsar in October 1836, Hari Singh made a surprise attack on the village of Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass. The owner of this village, Misha Khel Khyberi, was famous for his excellent marksmanship and complete disregard for any authority. Hari Singh Nalwa’s first encounter with this tribe was after the battle of Nowshera when he pursued the fugitive Azim Khan; And again, when he chased Dost Mohammad Khan in 1835.

The capture of Jamrud was strongly opposed but the place was taken by surprise. On its capture, Hari Singh Nalwa ordered to strengthen the position without delay. A small fort, which now exists, was soon repaired. The news of this incident immediately reached Kabul. In a letter dated October 31, 1836, Mason informed Wade of frontier developments. With Jamrud’s victory at the mouth of the Khyber, the boundaries of the Sikh empire lay at the foot of the Hindu Kush. mountain

Captured Darya e Khehbar: Being the governor of Peshawar, Hari Singh Nalwa ji had built a network of many forts and had built many new forts and repaired some of them when Nazar Khan came to know that Hari Singh had captured Darya-e-Khebar. And he said to his son, Pack your bag; we have to go from here now, and he told his son, We are running away from here because we can’t fight in front of him. And that son goes to take his fiancee, and he says that we should leave this area because Hari Singh Nalwa has reached here. Bano said, You used to say that when I shoot an arrow, no enemy comes to fight with me. I had promised to marry you because you are the strongest of all the Pathans of Dariya and Khehbar, but you turned out to be a coward. The boy says now is not the time to fight, so let’s get the bag ready quickly. The girl said that she wants to see who the general is that you are afraid of. The boy explains to the girl that it is not safe for you to go there because Hari Singh is our enemy. But soon she fulfilled her insistence, and Bano reached Hari Singh Nalwa’s destination. Bano asked, Who are you? And Hari Singh Ji would reply that I am the son of Guru Nanak. Bano said, Why have you occupied our territory? So Hari Singh Nalua replied that we did not occupy anyone’s territory; we just protected our own territory. Bano Kehandi, did I wish that I would marry a brave man and a Sikh general? I want a brave son like you to be born from my womb. And Hari Singh replied that the son may not be to your liking, but pray to Allah that he will follow good principles. Bano says I want to marry you, and then a general like you will be born from my womb. At that time, Hari Singh Nalwa was married, and he had two sons and a daughter! And he tells Bano this and says, Of course you are married, but I want a son from you! You married me. Hari Singh Nalwa got angry after hearing this, and Hari Singh Nalwa grabbed his sword and said, Escape from here as soon as possible; I know you have come to test the Sikhs. The girl started to know that there were tears in her eyes, and she stopped at the door as she was leaving and said, I heard that no one leaves Guru Nanak’s house empty-handed, and you are letting me go empty-handed! Hari Singh Nalwa asks for his name, and Bano says her name! And Hari Singh ji placed the chadar on the woman’s head, and Hari Singh Nalwa said with his hands that you wanted a son like me to be born from your womb! So from today on, I am your son. At that time, Hari Singh Nalwa was over 42 years old, and Bano was 20 years old! Bano had tears in her eyes after hearing this! It started to be said that I had heard stories of Singha’s high character, and now I have seen it! Bano decided to become a Sikh! She was named Bibi Bhano Ji!

Defeat of Panjtar (1836): The defeat at Khyberis sent shock waves through the Afghans. Hari Singh Nalwa, accompanied by Kanwar Sher Singh, now advanced towards the Yusafzai forts north-east of Peshawar, which held off tribute for three years. The Sikhs defeated Yusufzai, their chief Fateh Khan of Panjtar lost his territory. It was reported that 15,000 Mulkiya fled before the Sikhs, many were killed and the rest took refuge in the hills. After burning Panjtar to the ground, Hari Singh returned to Peshawar with all arrears of revenue realized. Fateh Khan was released on condition of being forced to sign an agreement to pay ransom. Fireworks were set off when news of Panjtar’s victory reached the Lahore court.

Sarvala: Even today, when someone gets married, a sarbala must be made, and he is also dressed in the same clothes as the groom! But have you ever thought about why it was prepared? In fact, a married boy is called Var, and a girl is called Bala! That’s why the word became a word! Hindu intellectuals had found a way when the brats were looted like this! When the bridegroom went, they were attacked to steal their jewels, and the groom was killed for saving the bride. So they found a solution: they will prepare a boy as a groom; he will be of his age; he will be kept behind the barat; if the groom dies, he will be married to a girl! The boy’s name was Sarvala.

Successful Jarnail of the World: In 1881, when an Englishman started writing about the successful generals of the world, he bowed his head while writing the name of Hari Singh Nalwa and said that his great general would be Sikandar or Jungez Khan, but in my eyes, Hari Singh Nalwa would be the bravest general. Because he said that every warrior who came to Darya e Khehbar was defeated, and only Hari Singh Nalwa ji conquered him! Another Englishman says that if the English army was with Hari Singh Nalwa, he could have conquered the whole world.

Attack on Kasoor by Maharaj Ranjit Singh: On February 10, 1807 AD. When gunfire failed to have any impact on the wall of the fort, Hari Singh planted gunpowder under the walls on the night of February 27 and blew them up in three places. Having made the gaps,  the Khalsa entered the fort with swords drawn out. In the ensuing battle, the soldiers of the Sher Dil regiment captured Nawab Kutab ul Din Khan Alive. As a mark of appreciation for the bravery and fearlessness of Hari Singh, the Maharaja granted him a feoff of thirty thousand rupees a year and made him the commander of eight hundred horsemen

Command of the Khyber Pass: One of Hari Singh Nalwa’s most notable achievements was his command over the strategically vital Khyber Pass. This section delves into his successful defence and management of the pass because he prevented Afghans from entering Punjab through the Khyber Pass, which was the main route that foreign invaders used at the time of his death. The western boundary of the empire was Jamrud, which not only ensured the security of the Sikh Empire’s western frontier but also established a lasting Sikh presence in the region. His leadership and ability to forge alliances with local tribes were crucial to maintaining control over this crucial trade route.

Administration and Governance: Hari Singh’s administrative rule covered one-third of the Sikh Empire. He served as Governor of Kashmir (1820–21), Greater Hazara (1822–1837) and was twice appointed Governor of Peshawar (1834–5 and 1836–his death). He worked with the Khalsa Sena, in many aspects of administration under the leadership of the Sikh Brahmin ‘Raja Mahan Singh Mirpuri’ 2 .

Hari Singh Nalwa was required to manage his vast jagir spread across the kingdom in his private capacity. He was sent to the most troubled parts of the Sikh Empire to create a “tradition of vigorous and efficient administration”. The territories under his control later became part of the British districts of Peshawar, Hazara (Pakhli, Damtaur, Haripur, Darband, Gandgarh, Dhund, Karal and Khanpur), Attock (Chachch, Hasan Abdal), Jehlum (Pindi Geb, Katus). Mianwali (Kachhi), Shahpur (Upper, Mitha Tiwana and Noorpur), Dera Ismail Khan (Bannu, Taki and Kundi), Rawalpindi (Rawalpindi, Kallar) and Gujranwala. In 1832, at the special request of William Bentick, His Majesty proposed a fixed schedule of duties for all his territories. Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa was one of the three persons appointed to fix duty from Attock (on the Indus) to Philaur (on the Sutlej). 

In Kashmir, however, Sikh rule was generally considered repressive, perhaps protected by Kashmir’s remoteness from the capital of the Sikh Empire at Lahore. The Sikhs enacted several anti-Muslim laws, the death penalty for cow slaughter, the closure of the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar,  and the banning of the Azan, the public Muslim prayer. Kashmir now began to attract European visitors, many of whom wrote of the poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and the excessive taxation under Sikh rule.

Sikh rule was an exception in later political history in a land dominated by Muslims for centuries. Rule by an ‘infidel’ was the worst form for Muslims.[84] Before the arrival of the Sikhs in Kashmir (1819), the Afghans ruled there for 67 years. For Muslims, Sikh rule was a dark period in the history of the place, while for Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) it was no worse than Afghan rule. The Sikh conquest of Kashmir was motivated by its appeal to its Hindu population. Oppressed Hindus were forcibly converted, their women were raped, their temples were desecrated and cows were slaughtered. Efforts by Sikhs to maintain peace in remote areas were forced to close mosques and ban calls to prayer as Muslim clerics whipped the population into a frenzy by calling for ‘jihad’ at every pretext. Cow slaughter (sacred cows) offended the religious sentiments of the Hindu population and was punishable by death in the Sikh Empire. In Peshawar, Hari Singh’s methods were most appropriate, given the “distress of the outcast tribes… and the geographical and political exigencies of the situation”.

Relations with Local Tribes and Powers: Hari Singh Nalwa skillfully navigated relations with the local tribes and powers in the regions under his influence. This section delves into his diplomatic endeavours, alliances, and negotiations with Pashtun tribes, Afghan rulers, and other regional powers. His ability to foster peaceful coexistence and maintain stability in the region contributed significantly to the Sikh Empire’s success.

Contributions to Sikh Architecture and Infrastructure: Hari Singh Nalwa’s patronage of art, architecture, and infrastructure development is a testament to his visionary leadership. This section explores his contributions to the construction of forts, palaces, and other architectural marvels, which not only served defensive purposes but also showcased the grandeur of the Sikh Empire. Additionally, his focus on infrastructure development, such as roads and irrigation systems, further facilitated the empire’s expansion and prosperity.

Conquest of Multan (1818): One of Hari Singh Nalwa’s remarkable military achievements was the conquest of Multan, a strategically important city in present-day Pakistan. In the Multan campaign of 1810 AD, the Maharaja observed that cannon fire was having no effect on the walls of the fort with gunpowder. Hari Singh Nalwa was the first to come forward for the job. Under the shower of bullets, he went ahead and placed gunpowder under the walls. After the fall of the wall, Nawab Muzzafar Khan got burning pots thrown at the Singhs from inside the fort. One pot fell on Hari Singh, which caused him severe injustice. After the victory of Multan, the Maharaja increased his feoff.

Disorder spread in Kashmir: In 1819 AD, the Maharaja annexed Kashmir to Khalsa rule and appointed Diwan Moti Ram as its governor. Due to his kind nature, disorder spread in the state of Diwan Moti Ram, its governor. Due to his kind nature, disorder spread in the state. Hari Singh was appointed governor in his place on August 20, 1820 AD. He first of all brought to book all those who were defying the state. Second, he reduced the rate of land revenue, due to which the landowners started depositing the revenue on their own accord without any force. Third, he abolished forced labour, which the farmers had to do for government officials at the cost of losing their own crops. Fourth, he abolished the tax on marriages, births, and engagements that was previously in force. Fifth, he provided financial assistance to increase the production of saffron and fine wool. Sixth, he standardised weights and measures. Seven, he abolished the law under which none except the Muslims could wear shoes or turbans. These reforms brought peace to Kashmir, and there was an increase in income.

The Maharaja was pleased with Hari Singh and conferred on him the right to mint coins in his name. After setting right the administration of Kashmir to Diwan Moti Ram on November 6, 1821, AD, on the orders of the Maharaja, he marched on the Munghar campaign himself.

Battle of Jamrud(1837) : An oil painting by Hari Singh Nalwa is exhibited in the Lahore Museum, Maharaj’s grandson Nau nihal Singh was to be married in March 1837. Troops were withdrawn from across the Punjab to demonstrate the power of the British Commander-in-Chief, who had been invited to the wedding. Dost Mohammad Khan was invited for this grand function. Hari Singh Nalwa was also supposed to be in Amritsar, but was actually in Peshawar (according to some accounts he was ill) when Dost Mohammad ordered his army to march to Jamrud along with his five sons and chief advisers. Engaged with the Sikhs, but try more as a display of power and wrestling in the forts of Shabaqadar, Jamrud and Peshawar. Hari Singh was also instructed not to engage with the Afghans until reinforcements arrived from Lahore.[69] Harisingh’s lieutenant, Mahan Singh, was in the fort of Jamrud with 600 men and limited supplies. Hari Singh was in the strong fort of Peshawar. He was forced to rescue his men surrounded by Afghan forces in a small fort without water. Although the Sikhs were outnumbered, the presence of Hari Singh Nalwa scared the Afghan army. Hari Singh Nalwa was seriously injured in this fight. Before his death, he asked his lieutenants to withhold news of his death until reinforcements arrived, which they did. Although the Afghans knew that Hari Singh was wounded, they waited for more than a week without doing anything until the news of his death arrived. The Afghans saw Nalwa’s body hanging outside the fort and retreated. Hari Singh Nalwa not only defended Jamrud and Peshawar but prevented the Afghans from ravaging the entire North-West Frontier, resulting in an inability to invade Afghanistan himself. The defeat of Harisingh Nalwa was irreparable and the defeat of the Sikhs was costly for the same reason.

Victory in the battle against the Afghans was Ranjit Singh’s favorite topic of discussion. He immortalized him by ordering a shawl from Kashmir at a record price of Rs 5000, depicting his battle scenes. After the death of Hari Singh Nalwa, there were no further conquests in this direction. The Khyber Pass continued to be the frontier of the Sikhs until the British took control of the Punjab.

Death: Hari Singh Nalwa Sahib was seriously injured while fighting the army of Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan. He died of his injuries and was cremated at Jamrud Fort at the mouth of the Khyber Pass in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. According to Afghan history, Siraj al Tawarikh, he was killed in a duel with Wazir Akbar Khan. According to historian Hari Ram Gupta, Hari Singh rallied his men and rode to the front where he was shot twice and later died after escaping inside the fort. Babu Gajju Mall Kapur, a Hindu resident of Peshawar, commemorated his memory by erecting a monument in the fort in 1892.

Significance of Nalwa: Many historians maintain that if Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his commander Hari Singh Nalwa had not taken control of Peshawar and the northwest frontier, which are parts of Pakistan now, then these areas could have been part of Afghanistan.

Without Nalwa and his coalition against Afghan lords, we could see more incursions into Punjab and Delhi.

Legacy and Impact: Hari Singh Nalwa’s legacy extends far beyond his military accomplishments. This section explores his lasting impact on the Sikh Empire and Sikh history. It reflects on his contributions to Sikhism, his role in the expansion and consolidation of the empire, and his influence on subsequent Sikh military leaders. His unwavering loyalty to the Sikh cause and his commitment to Sikh principles continue to inspire generations.

Conclusion: Hari Singh Nalwa’s legacy as a fearless general, visionary leader, and devoted Sikh remains an inspiration for generations. His military exploits, administrative reforms, and unwavering commitment to Sikh values have left an indelible mark on Sikh history. Hari Singh Nalwa’s contributions to the Sikh Empire’s expansion, military might, and cultural preservation continue to be celebrated, ensuring that his name and legacy live on in the hearts of Sikhs and history enthusiasts alike.

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia: The Resilient Leader of Sikh Misls

Introduction: Sultan ul Qaum,  Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, a prominent figure in Sikh history, was a resilient leader and a key contributor to the rise of the Sikh Misls. As the founder of the Ahluwalia Misl, he played a pivotal role in defending Sikh interests, consolidating Sikh power, and establishing the foundation for the eventual Sikh Empire. This article delves into the life, achievements, and legacy of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.

Early Life and Association with the Sikh Gurus:  Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was born on May 3, 1718, in the village of Ahlu, near Lahore, in present-day Pakistan. He hailed from the Ahluwalia lineage, which had a deep association with the Sikh Gurus. When he was 4 years old, his father, Sardar Badar Singh, passed away, and then he was brought up by his mother. And Mother Ji connected them with the Gurudwara and taught them the history of the Guru, Sikh principles, and Gurbani Kirtan. In those days, Khalsa’s mother, Sahib Kaur Ji, lived in Delhi! The Sangat often went to see her; similarly, the boy Jassa Singh Ahluwalia went to meet Mata Sahib Kaur Ji with his mother. When Jassa Singh Ahluwalia recited kirtan, Mata Sahib Kaur ji was so impressed that Mata Sahib Kaur ji kept Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and his mother in Delhi! Mata Sahib Kaur ji made special arrangements for Jassa Singh’s education; while staying there, Jassa Singh learned Urdu, Persian, Hindi, mathematics, etc. Gurbani Santhya was given to Jassa Singh ji by Bhai Mani Singh ji! Jassa Singh used to do kirtan with Mata Sahib Kaur ji every day! Jassa Singh Aluwalia’s maternal uncle Bhag Singh Haluwalia had no children in his house, and he came to Delhi and took Ahluwalia and his mother or asked permission from Mata Sahib Kaur ji. At first, they refused but repeatedly requested it. And Mata Sahib Kaur ji gave them weapons and permission to take Jassa Singh! Bhag Singh ji was very close to Nawab Kapur Singh ji. One day, when Kapur Singh ji came to his house to meet Bhag Singh, Jassa Singh’s qualities captivated him, and he also started insisting that Jassa Singh should be married to him as well. To be taken, Nawab Kapoor’s repeated request, Bhag Singh could not refuse, and he sent 12- to 13-yyear-old Jassa Singh to his camp! Jassa Singh, staying in the camp, started serving the langar and cleaning the vessel and fodder for the horses. Along with staying in the camp, I learned martial arts and armour.

Creation of Dal Khalsa and Misals: In 1733, Zakaria Khan Bahadur tried to negotiate peace by giving the Sikhs a jagir, the title of Nawab to their leader, and unfettered access to the Golden Temple. After deliberations in the Sarbat Khalsa, Kapur Singh was chosen as the leader of the Sikhs and assumed the title of Nawab. He grouped the various Sikh armies into two groups; Taruna Dal and Budha Dal, collectively known as Dal Khalsa. Sikh militia above 40 years of age will be part of Budha Dal and Sikh militia below 40 years of age will be part of Taruna Dal. The Taruna Dal is further divided into five jathas, each with 1,300 to 2,000 men and separate drums and banners. Taruna Dal will control the eastern region of Patna Hari while Budha Dal will control its western region. Taruna Dal will act as a united soldier. In 1735, however, the agreement between Zakaria Khan and Nawab Kapur Singh broke down and the Dal Khalsa retreated to the Shivalik Hills to regroup. Dal Khalsa was then ruled by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia who was an able and powerful administrator, he shifted the then Mughal power center (Red Fort) under the Khalsa flag and firmly laid the foundation of Khalsa to lead the next generation.

Attack of Nadir Shah: In 1739, Persian ruler Nadir Shah invaded most of northern India, including Punjab, defeated the Mughals at the Battle of Karnal in 1739, sacked the city of Delhi (Shahjahanabad) and looted treasures such as the Peacock Throne, the Kohinoor. Diamonds and Darya-e-Noor Diamonds. Meanwhile, all the Khalsa factions came together and passed a resolution that Nadir Shah had looted the city of Delhi and was now taking Indian women as slaves to his country. The Sikhs planned to free all the slaves. Jassingh Ahluwalia, who was 21 years old at the time, planned a raid to free all the slaves. He along with other groups of Sikhs attacked Nadir Shah’s army, freed all the slaves and sent them safely back to their families. 

Ahluwalia participated in many battles where he proved himself as a natural leader. Nawab Kapur Singh appointed him as his successor in 1748 meeting of Sarbat Khalsa. His followers conferred the title of Sultan-ul-Qaum (King of the Nation).

First confrontation of Sikh with abdali: The first confrontation of Sikhs with Abdali took place when, he defeating the Marathas in the field of Panipat, Abdali was abducting diamonds, gold, silver, and Hindustani women from there, and a group of Maratha leaders reached Sri Akal Takht Sahib to meet Sardar Jassa Singh Ahwalia. He appeals to save their honour; Sardar Saab agrees after consulting the Sardars of the Misals; and then, after the war, 22,000 females are freed and go to Maharashtra, leaving them at home! Along with this, the Sikhs took away a lot of Abdali’s treasure. After this war, Abdali was not taken care of at all and had to go to Lahore to survive.

Conquest of Jalandhar and Malarkotla: In June 1763, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia marched on Jalandhar, Jalandhar Governor Sadat Yar-Khan, fearing that he would not leave his capital, Jassa Singh plundered Jalandhar, and in December 1763, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia defeated and killed Bhikhan Khan. The Nawab of Malerkotla captured Morinda,

Conquest of Sirhind: In January 1764, the Dal Khalsa under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia attacked Sirhind, the governor of Sirhind, Zain Khan Sirhindi, was killed, the Sikhs captured Sirhind and divided the province among themselves, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia taking over Jagaon, Bharog, and Fatehgarh, 

In 1764 in the Ganga Doab and Rohilakhand: In February 1764, the Sikhs under the command of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, Khushal Singh, Sardar Tara Singh Ghaiba, Baghel Singh and Gurbaksh Singh crossed the Jamuna. They captured Saharanpur, Shamli, Kandla, Miranpur, Deoband, Jawalapur, Chandausi, Muzaffarnagar and Najibabad. Najib ad-Dawla made peace by promising the Sikhs a tribute of 11 lakh rupees.

Aggression of Abdaali against Sikhs: After this war, Abdali started to get angry with the Sikhs. During his next step, he announced the elimination of the Sikhs, and he gave the Nawab of Punjab to his special person! After giving the Nawabi of the province, he went back to Ghazni. Abdali gathered a huge army in the name of Jihad to fight the Sikhs, and after a short time, he went back to attack India.

Vadda ghalughara (the big mess): There is an occasion of Diwali in Punjab in 1761, when the entire Sikh panth gathers on the holy land of Amritsar for Sarbat Khalsa. There are many ideas passed for the sake of the nation, one of which is that those who arrest the Sikhs because of the supremacy of the Sikh government are traitors to the nation; the biggest threat to the nation is from them. Without whom, even Abdali cannot do anything; he will be killed first! When this matter reached Akal Das, he pretended to apologise and abdicate in the message! On the other hand, he also sent a message to Abdali that the Subedars whom you had sent have established their hold in the area and the families of the Sikhs are with them in vaheer, due to which it will be difficult for the Sikhs to compete. It is a golden opportunity to kill them. After a while, the Sikhs also got the news of Abdali’s arrival! It was not a big deal for the Sikhs to confront Abdali. The whole life of the Sikhs was a struggle; they were always on the saddles of horses, but the difficulty was that at that time their families (elderly, children, and women) were with them! The Sikhs had received the news that it would take about 10 days to reach Abdali, so they thought we had to leave our families in the land of Bikaner, so the Singhs walked towards the land of Bikaner! At that time, the number of Sikhs was 40000–45,000! Day went on when night fell. The Singhs settled in three villages. The Sikhs were thinking that it would take another 4-5 days to reach Abdali. The blood of killing the Sikhs was so intense in Abdali’s head that he led his army continuously for 36 hours! Abdali also gathered the forces of the Subedar of Punjab and surrounded the Sikhs around 3 o’clock in the morning! At that time, suddenly, the Sikhs had prepared a policy of fighting. The Singhs had built a human fort in which there were soldiers on both sides and their families in the middle. The Singhs had the responsibility of confronting the enemies and running the vaheer(group), but secretly, Abdali’s army came and attacked the families! Due to this, the Sikhs suffered a lot! Fighting from dawn to dusk, the Sikhs marched up to 14 miles, during which more than 40,000 Singhs, women, and small children were killed! By nightfall, only 2000 Sikhs were left in Wheer! Those Sikhs spent the night in a small jungle! At that time, Jassa Singh Ahuwalia had 21 wounds on his body. Half of the Sikh nation was destroyed during the great conflict.

Demolished Darbar sahib, Abdali sent a letter to the sikhs: Abdali thought that I would destroy the entire Sikh community, but this did not happen, and then Abdali demolished the Darbar Sahib with cannons in the month of April! When Diwali came in the month of October, Abdali thought that this time no one would go to the Darbar Sahib of Diwali because he had eliminated all the Sikhs, in his opinion! But then Darbar Sahib was the most crowded; more than 6,000 people came to celebrate Diwali! When Abdali found out about this, he was about to explode with anger, and then he made up his mind to attack. Then his mind collapsed, and after doing so much, he saw that the Sikh community would stand up again, so he sent Sardar Ala Singh of the Patiala princely state to negotiate. In the Darbar Sahib, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and all the Sardars of the Misls had gathered; they tore the letter and returned the envelope to Ala Singh with the letter.

Last attack by Abdaali : Abdali then ordered an attack, but he was actually broken from the inside! Under the leadership of Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, the Afghans were in bad condition; people died all day long, and Abdali suffered a lot, as it was the custom during wars at that time that the battle was not fought at night! So when the night came, all the armies returned to their respective places! Next morning, when the Sikh army arrived in the field, the Sikhs saw that Abdali’s army was not on the battle field! Because Abdali’s army had returned at night! This was the first punishment of Abdali’s life; after this war, Abdali never messed with the Sikhs. After this war, Darbar Sahib was rebuilt under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.

Conflict with Jassa Singh Ramgarhia:  In 1775, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia once went to Achal near Batala, he was attacked by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s brothers Khushal Singh, Tara Singh and Mali Singh, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was captured, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia apologized for the bad behavior of his brothers and sent Ahluwalia away with honour. returned with presents, but differences between them increased, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia took an oath, He would expel the Ramgarhias from the country,

In 1778, Jai Singh Kanhaiya and Haqikat Singh Kanhaiya, supported by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, attacked the headquarters of Jassa Singh Ramgarhiya Sri Hargobindpur and after driving him to the desert of Ghansi and Hisar, he set up his headquarters at Tosham.

Bravery of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia: Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s bodyguard name was Gurmukh Singh! When he saw Jassa Singh Ahluwalia surrounded, he thought that something had happened to our general and the feet of the rest of the army would also be uprooted, so Gurmukh Singh ran to his horse and tried to get the horse out of the enclosure by hitting the scabbard of his sword. But Jassa Singh Ahluwalia raised his hand, signalled to stop, and started saying that with your help, I would not get out of this enclosure by running a horse!

Captured delhi: When the Sikhs entered Delhi in 1783, after reaching Delhi, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia first captured Mughalpur, and then Baba Baghel Singh Ji came with 30,000 troops and gathered outside the 4 walls of Delhi and the wall in which the Sikhs entered through a hole. A gate was made on that wall. In this way, Sikhs occupied the red fort of Delhi, along with Jassa Singh Ragarhia, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, and Baba Baghel Singh. Here they got a lot of money, and 4 guns and 12 thousand pillars of the Mughal artillery were also captured. A colourful stone slab with a crown, Takht-e-Taus, was also found, which they took possession of. And the emblem of the Khalsa Raj was swung on the throne of Delhi, where it always issued orders to end the Sikh rule. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was placed on the throne of Delhi by the Sikhs as Badshah Singh of Delhi, the Ramgarhia being a minority, but he challenged Ahluwalia and demanded his immediate resignation. When Jassa Singh Ahluwalia once abandoned his honour, both sides drew swords and prepared to attack each other. [46] [47] The Mughals agreed to build 7 Sikh Gurdwaras in Delhi for Sikh Gurus.

12misls: At that time, the Sikhs had about 65 groups, and after gradually disintegrating, they became more than 400. By reuniting them, Sardar Saab formed 12 groups, and he himself took over their commando in chief. These 12 groups became 12 misls. These 12 misls were: Ramgharia misl, Bhangi misl, Kanheya misl, Ahluwalia misl, Sukarchakkia misl, Nakai misl, Dalewala misl, Nishanwalia misl, Karorasinghia misl, Shahid or Nihang misl, Faizulpuria misl, and Phulkian misl.

Differences between Sikhs: These Sikh misls used to fight with each other a lot, but there was one characteristic: when there was a calamity in the Sikh community, the leaders of the misls used to shout a slogan that:

ਮਿਸਲ ਵੰਡ ਹੁਣ ਕਦੇ ਨਾ ਪਾਓ

ਰਲ ਮਿਲ ਕੇ ਖੜ੍ਹ ਤੁਰ ਪੰਥ ਬਚਾਓ

Misl vand hun kade na pao

Ral mil ke kharh tur panth bachao

It means that we should never divide now; save the Sikh panth together.

Inter-Misl battles : The Sikhs suffered a lot in the inter-Misal battle; this loss could have been more, but Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s prudence kept him aside. Only Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was educated among the leaders of these misals! In order to reduce fighting among the Misls, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia began to keep recording the territories conquered by the Misls. Whenever there was a fight between the Misals on a border issue, Jassa Singh would get documents and, with Ahluwalia, peacefully resolve the issue.

Maintained peace and unity in panth: Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s main focus was to maintain peace in the panth! 11 out of 12 misals never bowed before Abdali, except one! This is Sardar Ala Singh of Patiala State! Since then, the rest of the misals have been insisting on removing him from the panth, and Sardar Saab stopped them and explained that it was the compulsion of Ala Sahib that Abdali’s headquarters were located in Sirhind, and then he could have easily attacked Patiala and won it! So Jassa Singh Ahluwalia ji limited them only to fining the panth and saved the panth from disintegration.

Support for Sikh Education: Jassa Singh Ahluwalia recognised the importance of education in empowering the Sikh community. He encouraged the establishment of Sikh educational institutions, including schools and centres of learning. By promoting Sikh education, he aimed to ensure the preservation of Sikh values, traditions, and teachings for future generations.

Passing and Legacy: The great warrior of the Sikh panth, Jassa Singh, died in 1783 in Amritsar. He was only 65 years old. His martyrdom further cemented his legendary status and left an indelible impact on Sikh collective memory in Katra Ahluwalia Amritsar. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s sacrifice and unwavering commitment to Sikh principles continue to inspire generations of Sikhs, reminding them of the sacrifices made for the preservation and prosperity of the Sikh faith.

Conclusion: Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, a resilient leader and visionary, played a pivotal role in Sikh history. His military prowess, strategic leadership, and dedication to Sikh values left an indelible mark on the Sikh community. His contributions to Sikh institutions, governance, and alliances laid the foundation for the Sikh Empire and inspired generations of Sikhs to uphold the principles of justice, equality, and selfless service. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s legacy continues to serve as a beacon of inspiration, reminding Sikhs of their rich history, resilience, and the enduring spirit of the Khalsa.

Jassa Singh Ramgarhia

Jassa Singh Ramgarhia: The Dynamic Sikh Warrior

Jassa Singh Ramgarhia

Introduction: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, a prominent figure in Sikh history, was a revered Sikh warrior and statesman who played a crucial role in defending Sikh interests and consolidating Sikh power. His leadership, military brilliance, and administrative capabilities made him one of the most respected and influential figures of his time. This article provides an overview of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s life, achievements, and legacy.

Early Life and Rise to Prominence: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was born on 5 May 1723 in the village of Ichogil, Punjab. He belonged to the Ramgarhia Misl, named after the fortified fort of Ramghar.

The family of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia has been associated with Guru Ghar for generations. On the day of Baisakhi in 1699, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa Panth, the first hundred Singhs who were baptized by Dashmesh Pita included Sardar Hardas Singh, the grandfather of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. They knew carpentry, so they were entrusted with the task of making weapons for the army of Guru Ghar. Bhai Hardas Ji performed this work very well. Bhai Hardas Ji fought many wars with Baba Banda Singh Bahadur after accepting the torch of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and was injured after the widow’s war. After the martyrdom of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, the Sikhs had no main leader until 1716-1733. During that time, Bhai Bhagwan Singh (Jassa Singh’s father) came to Icho Gill with his family. Bhai Bhagwan Singh was a fearless soldier and, with 200 followers, entered the royal Mughal army under the governor of Lahore, Khan Bahadur, where he became a renowned officer. Bhai Bhagwan Singh had five sons: Jai Singh, Jassa Singh, Khushal Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh. Jassa Singh was the second son, born in 1723. Sardar Jassa Singh Ji learned armor techniques and Gurmukhi from his father. From a young age, he embraced Sikhism and became a dedicated follower of the Sikh Gurus. Soon, under the leadership of Sardar Gurdayal Singh, Jassa Singh Ji drank Amrit from the Five Beloved Ones ( Panj Pyaare). Jassa Singh Ramgarhia Ji was not interested in carpentry work since his childhood, because as he grew older, his desire to work for the Sikh community grew stronger.

1st Battle Against Nader Shah: When Nader Shah was coming to India intending to loot Irani and when this news reached Sardar Jassa Singh, he went to war with his father. He fought so bravely in the war. In the war of 1738, Sardar Jassa Singh’s father was martyred, but Zakariya Khan, seeing his bravery, gave his family a Jagir of 5 villages near Amritsar and gave Sardar Jassa Singh the post of Rasaodar. The names of those villages were:- Vallah, Verka, Tung, Sultanwind, Chaba. Among them, the village of Wallah came to the share of Jassa Singh ji and this is where his political life began

Sikhs Forming Small Groups: Sikhs forming small groups That particular time of 1745 holds a special place in Sikh history, Zakaria Khan dies on July 1. Due to his 19 years as the governor, the Sikh community faced many difficulties. his two sons started fighting each other for the throne! Although the Sikhs had many golden opportunities, the Sikhs also started forming small groups and Sardar Jassa Singh also joined the group of Sardar Nand Singh Singhania. By the time the two boys of Zakaria Khan understood, the Sikhs had made a separate place.

Construction of Ramrouni Fort: One day, on the occasion of Baisakhi, all Sikhs were gathered together, their Sardar Sukha Singh Kalsi, Mani Kamboke urged the Sikhs to build the first fort for their protection, which will be named from Guru Ram Dass ji’s name!!! And the fort was named Ramroni, near Amritsar, Guru Ramdas ji built a well, around the same well, in 1748, the foundation stone of a crude fort was laid! Within a few days, this fort was completely done, in which Sardar Jassa Singh and his colleagues made a big contribution!


The Siege at Ramrouni Fort Ahmad Shah Abdali was defeated by Mir Mannu during a battle and on 9 April 1748, Mir Mannu became the subedar of Lahore and Multan, who, anticipating the growing Sikh population, issued orders to kill the Sikhs when the Sikhs sought help. They reached Adheena Begh towards Jalandhar, who was the subedar of that place, he was a very clever ruler. One day on the occasion of Diwali, when the Sikhs Harminder Sahib gathered in large numbers, Mir Mana asked the subordinate Bey to surround him. 500 Singhs were sitting in the fort of Ramrouni. Seeing that they entered the Sikh’s courage increased and he was ready to fight with them! Kaura Mall Jau was the hero of Adheena Beg. When Jassa Singh spoke to him, he consulted with Adhin Beg and lifted the siege from Ram Rauni. When Ahmad Shah got this news, he was coming from Kabul. Adhin Bagh embraced the Sikhs, and with the wisdom of Jassa Singh this crisis that came to the Sikh community was overcome.

From Jassa Singh to Jassa Singh Ramgarhia : Sardar Jassa Singh Ji became a respectable personality and it became clear that he could make a great sacrifice for the Panth. After this, the fort of Ramrawani was also named Ramgarh, and Sardar Jassa Singh was also appointed as its commander, so he and his companions were called Ramgarhia after their name! All the responsibility of Ramgarh Fort was entrusted to Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and he continued to build it from time to time!

Formation of Dal Khalsa: Ahmed Shah Abdali started attacks from Afghan!! On his way to Delhi, Punjab was located here to stop Ahmad Shah Abdali, Sikhs formed Dal Khalsa, which had 65 teams, and each team had a Jathedar!! Slowly the group got together and took the form of misals. On March 29, 1749, 12 misals were formed on the day of Vaisakhi!! Among them was Ramgarhia Missal, his Jathedar was Jassa Singh Ramgarhia!

Ramgarhia Misl: Most of the Jathedars of Ramgarhia misl were blacksmiths and carpenters. Because of which they started naming Ramgarhia after their name. At one time Jassa Singh Ramgarhia had 12000 soldiers, 6000 horsemen, and more than 360 forts and more than 40 lakhs of taxes were collected from that area. During the third attack of Ahmed Shah Abdali, only Diwan Kaura Mall was the support of the  Sikhs after his death!! Mir Mannu sat on his throne!! Now there is no way for the Sikhs and Mir to become very close to each other!

Attack on Ramgarhia Fort: Mir Mannu did a lot of oppression to the Sikhs, many Sikhs left Lahore and were tortured and martyred, but still he could not eliminate the Sikhs completely. Mir Mana was attacked and demolished Ramgarhia fort But Jassa Singh Ramgarhia managed to get out by breaking the wall!!

Abdali’s Attack on Punjab: In the year 1752, Mir Man died and the government began to weaken. On this occasion, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia started the construction of the Ramgarh Fort again, which kept the enemies in mind. In the year 1767, Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked for the last time, in which Abdali was getting success, he crossed the river Beas, but Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia were standing in front of him. With that attack of the Sikhs, Abdali’s army was swept away. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was injured in this battle. And the command of the army was in the hands of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia fought so bravely that Abdali’s army had to accept defeat. After this, his name became famous all over India!!


Jassa singh Ramgarhia captured areas Jassa Singh Ramgarhia along with his brother Jai Singh won some areas of Batale and Amritsar!! After the death of Adhina Baig in 1758 AD, the Pathans took over the rule which the Sikhs resisted very bravely. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s power increased due to being with the entire Sikh Panth. They then occupied Batala, Kadian Kalanur, Ghuman, Sri Hargobandpur, Dinanagar, Shahpur Kandi!! They soon conquered the areas of Tanda, Maniwal, Mangowal, Miani, Digalpur and Rohil. When Sardar Jassa Singh Ji Ramgarhia thought of occupying the hilly areas of the north, at that time no one thought of going to the north because of Punjab. The hill princely states were the most developed princely states in those days. Ghuman Chand, the ruler of a princely state, Sardar Jassa Singh Ji Ramgarhia, climbed Kot Kangre and agreed to pay 4000 rupees to Ghuman Chand. They paid taxes till 1774. Because of this stubbornness of Kangra, they easily gained authority over the rest of the hill kingdoms. After some time, the kings of Nupur and Chambe also disagreed. Made a permanent central state system. After that, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia annexed all the territories and established a permanent central state.

The rivalry between Ahluwalia and Ramgarhia: Since the borders of Ahluwalia, Ramgarhia and Masala were connected, there was occasional clash between them. As a result, tensions between the two parties arose.

The controversy between Ahluwalia and Ramgarhia and the battle for the Delhi government: When 60-70,000 Sikhs attacked Delhi with all their strength, the emperor vacated the throne occupied by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, which Ramgarh was unhappy with. He carried the stone throne, 6 feet 3 inches long, 4 feet 6 inches wide and 9 inches thick, on the back of elephants to Sri Amritsar and placed it in front of the Ramgarhiya Bungi where Sri Guru Granth Sahib was installed.

Capture of Ahluwalia by Ramgarhia brothers : As Jassa Singh Ahluwalia passed through Gurdaspur, Ramghar’s brothers Kushal Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh caught up with him. Jassa Singh left Ramgarhia with honors and gifts, but Holwalia did not forget the humiliation and swore that he would not remove the turban from his head until he had conquered the entire Ramgarhia region. He surrounded Jhosa Singh’s territory with other missiles. He was accompanied by Bhangi Ganda Singh and Janda Singh, Kanhiya Jai Singh and Hakit Singh, Charhat Singh Shukarchakia, Nahar Singh Chamariwala, and other chiefs who besieged the Ramgarh district. After a siege of four months, Tara Singh was killed and Khushi Singh was wounded. Of the 10,000 men only 4000 survived, Jassa Singh left his territory at Ramgarh and crossed the Sutlej with his Sikhs to Mathura in the Agra district.

Administrative Reforms and Good Governance: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was not only a skilled warrior but also an astute administrator. He introduced a range of administrative reforms aimed at ensuring efficient governance within his territories. These reforms focused on promoting justice, welfare, and the development of infrastructure. He encouraged trade and commerce, benefiting the local economy and strengthening the overall prosperity of the Sikh community.

Capital changed : In the beginning, his capital was Ramgarh, then later he made Sri Hargobidpur his capital, because he conquered them. Maharaj Ranjit Singh ji built 360 forts in the center of the area. Singhpur Barnala fort is the most famous among them.

Battle of kasur : After winning many important areas, Maharaja Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s hard work was discussed everywhere, he was seen as a responsible and powerful general. In the 18th century, Kasur city was considered the city of blessed! Because all the rich people lived there. In that area, there were 12 forts and a large army camp!Sardar Hari Singh Bhangu, Sardar Chars Singh Shukarchakiya, Maharaja Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Sardar Jai Singh Kanhaiya marched on the city with an army of 15000 !The real reason for this attack was looting rich wealth for supplies and weapons for the Sikh soldiers and the complaint made by the Pandit to Sikhs that pandit’s wife was forcibly taken away by the ruler of Kasur. Finally, the Sikhs came to the battlefield, and the ruler of Kasur, Usman Khan Kasuri, came in the battlefield with many soldiers and they were confronted!And finally the ruler died, the Sikhs looted diamonds, pearls, wealth, crores of rupees from Kasur Sahib.

Provinces of Delhi and Rajputana for five years: In Delhi he looted and burned the Mughal Palace and captured 4 cannons from the Red Fort. He then defeated the Nawabs of Panipat, Karnal and Meerut and started collecting ten thousand rupees a year. He also received large presents and gifts from the kings of Bharatpur, Dholpur and Jaipur Of these, a Gupti (sword in a staff) is preserved by the family, on which the name of Maharaja Jasa Singh Ahluwalia is written in gold letters.
The areas around Delhi held by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia included Hissar, Hinsi, Sambhal, Chandosi, Kashganj, Khurja, Sikandar, Meerut, Delhi, Panipat and Karnal. The states of Bharatpur, Dholpur and Jaipur also pay tribute to him.

 free the two daughters of Brahman: One day a Brahmin complained to him that Nawab Hisar had taken his two daughters Josa Singh always stood against violence and oppression and helped the victims. He attacked the Nawab, strangled him, freed the two girls, and handed them over to the Brahmins. Some Brahmins objected to receiving the girls, whom they expected to be defiled by Muslims, but Jassa Singh Ramgarhia gathered all the Brahmins and fed all the girls by hand. Therefore, girls are accepted in society.
Sadat Ali Khan, son of Nawab Hissar, gave Rs. 50,000 for the maintenance of the Nawabshah. A tribute of Rs 50,000 was also paid from the people of Hissar.  

 The Khalsa flag was hoisted around Delhi: When the Sikhs entered Delhi in 1783, after reaching Delhi, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia first captured Mughalpur and then 30,000 troops gathered outside the 4 walls of Delhi and the wall in which the Sikhs entered through a hole, A gate was made on that wall. In this way, Sikhs occupied the red fort of Delhi. along with Jassa Singh Ragarhia, there were other generals of the Sikh Misal. Jassa Singh raised the Khalsa flag for five years in the present-day Haryana region, western UP, Delhi, and Rajputana. Here they got a lot of money and 4 guns and 12 thousand pillars of the Mughal artillery were also captured. A colorful stone slab with a crown, Takht-e-Taus was also found, which they took possession of. And the emblem of the Khalsa Raj was swung on the throne of  Delhi, where always issued orders to end the Sikh rule. That is still present in Ramgarhia Bunge, Amritsar. This sill is 6 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 9 inches thick.  

Back to Punjab: In 1783, Shakrachakia and Kanhaiya factories clashed. Since the Kanhaiya family was strong, Maha Singh looked for a strong partner He could not find a brave and capable commander like Josa Singh Ramgarh, so he called Punjab to help him Jai Singh, understanding the purpose, replied to Maha Singh, “If Jai Singh will bow his head and offer his daughter in marriage to Ranjit Singh, give back the fort of Kangra to Raja Sansar Chand, then you will all be good friends.” By rejoining, you’ll be against me again, so there’s no point in me joining your fight. To this reply, Mahasingh Raja, together with Sansar Chand and other hill kings, again sent a message saying, “If you help us against Jaisingh Kanhaya, we will not break our friendship with you.”

Return to Batala: Jassa Singh, finding the answer of Maha Singh and his friends satisfactory, set out with his army for Punjab Jai Singh Ramgarh, Maha singh and the hill kings suddenly besieged the fort of Kanhayia and sent a message to Jai singh to surrender and vacate the territory of Ramgarh If Jai Singh did not saying so, the team of Maha Singh, Jassa Singh and their friends destroyed the Kanhiya Factory area.
Jai Singh sent 8000 soldiers under the leadership of his son Garbaksh Singh who stopped Josa Singh, Maha Singh and their friends but Garbaksh Singh was killed by the arrows of Jasa Singh Jai Singh submitted to Jassa Singh. Jasa Singh also mourned the passing of Garbaksh Singh. He then started attacking Riarke.

Jai Singh objected again: Soon the cat was out of the bag. It happened as predicted and written by Jassa Singh to Ramgarh Maha Singh. Jai Singh married his grandson to Ranjit Singh. Maha Singh, along with Sansar Chand and other hill kings besieged Batala But after 20 days the siege had to be lifted.
When Jai Singh died, his queen Sada Kaur Kanhaya took over the government of Egypt With his son Ranjit Singh, Fateh Singh of Ahluwalia Mul, etc., he besieged Jassa Singh Ramgarh on the banks of the Beas in Mayani When a natural flood occurred in the Beas, where Kanhaiya Dera sank, Sada Kaur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh lifted the siege and returned to Gujranwala. However, Jassa Singh also lost his courage against Ranjit Singh at Ramgarh

protested against Ranjit Singh: In 1800, when Ranjit Singh ascended, the Sardar besieged him in Lahore. Bhangis, Ramgarhias and other Misals met to inspect Sardar Ranjit Singh’s booty. After Jassa Singh Ramgarhia grew old, the cover fell on his son Jodh Singh Ramgarhia who also joined the expedition along with other Sardars But the siege was lifted after the death of Sardar Gulab Singh, the chief of Missal. Shortly after this, in 1803, Jassa Singh also breathed his last due to high fever. And so ended the life of a great warrior. and the command of Misal fell to his son Jodh Singh

Some special events: After the assassination of Raja Alam Khan of Delhi, Bhambu Khan Jassa Singh, brother of Ghulam Khan, sought refuge from Ramgarhia. He was not only given waste and security but also a jagir in Mazha. When Laik Singh escaped from Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s prison and came under the protection of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, he fought with Maharaja Ranjit Singh for his protection for four months.

Brief Comparison of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Jassa Singh Ramgarhia:The two great leaders of the Misal period were Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Jassa Singh Ramgarhia Ahluwalia, who were close confidants of Kapur Singh, and whose legacy in view of his succession to Kaur Singh, enjoyed a special position among the Sikhs, while Ramgarhia had acquired a reputation for strength and courage. When all who yearn decide together, the guidance of both is accepted. Their courage is unmatched. The Ahluwalia remained confined to the Punjab, but the Ramgarhia also spread beyond the Punjab to the states of Himachal, Haryana, UP, Rajasthan and Delhi, and Khalsa rule spread to northern India. He is also generous. Once the Dehi emperor secretly sent him valuables He kept only the weapons but distributed the rest of the expensive gifts to his Sikhs.

Legacy and Contributions: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s leadership and contributions significantly shaped Sikh history. His military successes inspired pride and confidence among Sikhs, establishing him as a revered figure within the community. His efforts in safeguarding Sikh institutions, promoting Sikh values, and fostering unity laid the foundation for a united Sikh identity and the eventual establishment of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Martyrdom and Legacy: Despite his military successes and administrative reforms, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s life came to a tragic end. In 1803, he was betrayed and captured by the Sukerchakia Misl, led by Ranjit Singh’s father, Maha Singh. He was then handed over to the Mughal authorities and subsequently executed. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s martyrdom further solidified his legendary status and left a lasting impact on Sikh collective memory.

Conclusion: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, a revered Sikh warrior and statesman, played a pivotal role in defending Sikh interests, consolidating power, and shaping Sikh history. His military brilliance, administrative acumen, and commitment to Sikh principles continue to inspire and resonate with Sikhs worldwide. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s legacy serves as a reminder of the indomitable spirit, valor, and resilience of the Sikh community

Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s biography and life lessons

Guru Gobind Singh ji

Introduction: Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, is revered as a spiritual leader, warrior, and visionary., Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s life was characterized by his unwavering commitment to upholding Sikh principles, defending the oppressed, and establishing the Khalsa Panth. His teachings and actions continue to inspire Sikhs and people worldwide, instilling courage, equality, and devotion

Early Life and Education: Guru Gobind Singh Ji was Born on December 22, 1666, to the house of Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji, and mata Gujri ji , in Patna Sahib, Bihar. Guru Gobind Singh ji spent 6 years of his childhood in Patna, Sahib.  the ninth Sikh Guru .  At that time gurji’s  father Guru Tegh Bahadur ji was on preaching religion, when his father returned. Then in 1672, Guru Sahib reached a place called Chak Nanki i.e. Anandpur Sahib in Punjab along with his parents. t this place Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s education started at the age of 6 years, staying there he learned the following languages Sanskrit, Persian, Hindi and Gurmukhi. And he also learned martial arts , sword fighting and archery.

Gurgaddi: At the same time, Kashmiri Pandits requested Guru Tegh Bahadur ji that Aurangzeb is torturing Hindus in Kashmir, converting Hindus to Muslims, killing cows, gurus and Hindus. Then Gur Tegh Bahadur ji Said that if there is a great man who can save Hindus by sacrificing himself, so that Hindus are not forcefully converted into Muslims. Then Guru Gobind Singh ji said that who can be a greater great man than you in this world? And thus Guru Tegh Bahadur ji sacrificed his life to protect Kashmiri Hindus and cows!! 29 March 1676, on this day Dasmesh Pita Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji became the 10th Guru Joshi of the Sikh Panth. Instead of becoming a preacher, Guru Maharaj took up the sword, in his company thousands of people made swords companions, the abode of bliss resounded with the clang of swords

Marriage: Some historians believe that Guru ji had 3 marriages 1st marriage at the age of 10 with Mata Jeeto ji in 1677 from whom he had three Sahibzadas, Baba Jujhar Singh ji (1691) Baba Zorawar Singh Ji (1696) Baba Fateh Singh ji (1699) happened. The second marriage took place at the age of 17 with Mata Sundari ji in 1684 at Anandpur Sahib. From whom Baba Ajit Singh ji (1687) was attained. And the third marriage took place in 1700 AD with Mata Sahib Kaur ji. But according to many Sikh historians Guru Gobind Singh. Jito ji was married only once, his wife was Jeeto ji, because of being very beautiful, Mata Gujri ji named her Mata Sundari. Because of the two names of Mata Jito ji, people got confused that Guru ji had 2 wives. And in history there is mention of 3rd wife of Guru Ji, Mata Sahib Kaur Ji, she was a servant of Guru Ghar!!! Being a servant of Guru Ghar, she had a lot of respect towards Guru Ghar, due to which her father brought Mata Sahib Kaur ji’s relationship to Guru Gobind Singh ji, but Guru ji refused to marry her with hospitality, and said She is already married, Mata Sahib ji refused to go from Guru Ghar to her home because she wanted to stay in Guru Ghar only. That’s why Guru ji did not marry her, but allowed her to live in Guru’s house. And Mata Sahib Kaur ji was given the status of Mother of Khalsa by the Guru.

Difficulties had to face by Guruji: After Guru Gobind Singh got the throne at the age of 9 years!! They had to face many difficulties. Nevertheless, he fought with great patience and gave a powerful leadership to the Sikh Panth. The biggest problem was the religious fanaticism of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, he wanted to forcefully make the whole country an Islamic country. He forcefully started converting Hindus into Muslims, got their temples demolished. The governor of Punjab and other officials were ruthless, such as Wazir Khan, the faujdar of Sirhand, who was trying to eliminate the Sikhs.

Positive Points: The Hindus of that time did not have the strength to single-handedly face the atrocities of the Mughals. Apart from all these difficulties, there were also some good things which proved to be very helpful to Guru Gobind Singh ji. The first thing was that from 1st Patshah to 9th Patshah, all the gurus had not worked together, due to which he was respected and loved. Bound in the bond of unity. The second thing was that the Jats of Malwa and Majha region went on joining Sikh religion, they were fighters by nature and were crazy about freedom, Guru ji Mughals to these people. Training was given by joining against

Paonta sahib: The war preparations were spread far and wide by Guru ji. The Sikh Sangat was ordered to gift scriptures and horses to those Sikh Sangats. After the order of Guru ji, different types of scriptures started being presented. Seeing the military activities of Guru Gobind Singh ji, Pahari Raje started feeling jealous of Guru ji. He was afraid that Guru ji might make an independent state in his princely state. Guru ji. Built a fort on the banks of the Yamuna river, away from the eyes of the Mughals and hill kings, which was named Paonta Sahib.

Wrote hymns: After the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur ji, the mental condition of the Sikhs had reached deep, Guru ji took the support of literature to fill them with enthusiasm. Guruji, with the help of 52 widows and poets, wrote high-quality works like Chandi Di Vaar Akal Ustat, Krishna Avatar, reading which the feelings of heroism and enthusiasm started to arise again in the Sikhs.

Guru Gobind Singh always keep a falcon: Guru Ji has tried to give some hint to the Sikhs by keeping it, like a falcon never accepts slavery, if it is kept in a cage, either it will break the cage and fly away or it will kill itself in the struggle to break it. Sing of life The eagle flies to the far heights of the sky, but its eyes always remain on the earth, from this Guru Sahib has indicated Manna Niwa Mata Hochi, the eagle never eats the prey made by anyone, it always eats its own prey. Since then Guru Sahib has given us a hint to work without eating the rights of others. The latter always flies against the wind, from here Guru Sahib has indicated that if something is going wrong, let’s do something different except his sheepish behavior, the eagle never builds its nest, the sky is its roof and the ground is its home, which means that Sikhs To never fall into delusion is to always be free

Stayed in Agra: Once Guru Gobind Singh ji stayed with Bahadur Shah in Agra. Bahadur Shah scolded him and said that whoever learns the kalama of Islam will be admitted to the dargah, but Guru Sahib began to explain to him that only by reading the kalama a person is not admitted to the dargah, but Bahadur. Shah was not agreeing, Guru Sahib took out a coin on which the words were written to explain to him, Guru Sahib gave the coin to the treasurer and sent him to the market and asked him to use the coin. came and told Guru Sahib that this coin was not valid because it was false then Guru Sahib explained to Bahadur Shah that of course there was a pen written on this coin but it was not valid in a market because it was false. Even Dargah cannot be approved. Dargah will be accepted only, whose belief will be true.

Meeting peer budhu shah: Guru ji. Started small military campaigns, also taught horse riding, archery and swordsmanship. Guru ji went to Sadora in 1687 AD!! Which is 25 kilometers away from Himachal Pradesh. He met a Pir, his name was Pir Budhu Shah, he was so impressed by Guru Ji’s thoughts that he became his shardhalu. Through Pir, 500 Pathans came to Guruji’s army who were in Guruji’s army. Guru ji included him in his army, he was also given regular salary.

Battlle of bhangani: Growing popularity of Guru ji. Biggest kings started getting jealous of Guruji. Conspiracies started day and night against him, due to which on 22 December 1688, the Battle of Bhangani took place between Raja Bhim Chand and Guruji. This place was at some distance from Paonta Sahib. Bhimchandra was badly defeated in the war.

Relationship with hill kings: The confidence of the Sikhs increased further after the resounding victory. Despite limited means, Guru ji defeated Sa with military skill. After this war, the hill kings especially Bhim Chand came to an agreement with Guru ji and together with Guru ji won the battle of Nadaun against the Mughals.. After some time, Bhim Chand and some of the hill kings, after losing faith in Guru ji, made an agreement with the Mughals again. Guru ji awakened the spirit of patriotism and unity in the minds of those kings. Tried a lot but due to the betrayal done by them after the war in Nadaun,

Forming Khalsa Panth: After some time, Bhim Chand and some of the hill kings, after losing faith in Guru ji, made an agreement with the Mughals again. Guru ji awakened the spirit of patriotism and unity in the minds of those kings. Tried a lot but due to the betrayal done by them after the war in Nadaun, Guru ji then decided that he would have to face the Mughals alone by forming a powerful organization, that’s why he did it on 13 April 1699 at Anandpur Sahib. Khalsa Panth was established. The meaning of Khalsa is pure, that is, the organization of holy people who do not discriminate between caste lessons and high and low, lives a pure, true and religious life and also has the courage to take up arms against atrocities. That’s why Guru ji made 5 dear ones his own happiness by giving them nectar. And after drinking nectar from the hands of those five, he himself became Govind Singh ji from cow mustard. Thousands of people became Sikhs of Guru ji at that time, in this way Guru ji prepared his huge Sikh army.

Jealousy of hill kings: After the formation of the Khalsa Panth, the hill kings could not tolerate the increasing power of Guruji. To suppress the power of Guru ji, he started one war after another, all these wars started from 1700 AD and continued till 1703. Even after fighting so many battles, he could not defeat Guruji.

Seige of Anandpur Sahib: After the defeat of successive hill kings, Aurangzeb was sought for help in 1604. Aurangzeb was already an enemy of Guru Gobind Singh ji. He surrounded the fort of Anandpur Sahib from all sides by gathering a huge army under the leadership of Sirhind’s Faujdar Wazir Khan in May 1704 AD, along with the hill kings, this siege lasted till December 1704. Whoever went out of the V Sikh Kill would be killed. The lions who were locked in the fort started dying of hunger and thirst because the available food items also started ending. In this difficult time, 40 Sikhs gave their resignation to Guruji and left Guru Sahib Ji’s company. Even then, Guru ji continued to face difficulties with patience.

Leaving Anandpur kila and  vichhoda in sarsa nadi: Aurangzeb wanted It was that Guruji should be made so strong that he bowed his head in front of me and started obeying everything I said. but. He did not succeed in breaking the morale of Guru ji, Guru ji fought with great courage and courage, on the other hand the enemies were tired of fighting. On this, the Mughal general took the oath of the Quran and the hill kings assured Guru ji that if he left the fort, he would be allowed to go out safely. Guruji did not trust him, but at the behest of Gujri ji and other Sikhs, Guruji left the fort of Anandpur along with his family and Sikh army on 21 December 1704 AD. Guru ji and his teachings had just gone a little far, the Mughals forgot their vows and attacked Guru ji. Guruji ordered 50 Sikhs under the leadership of Bhai Udai Singh to stop the enemy force and himself continued to advance, the battle took place near the Sarsa River, Bhai Udai Singh and the rest of the Sikhs held the enemy. At that time there was a fence across the Sarsa river. While crossing the river, Guru ji’s precious person got washed away, this Baghdar. I got separated from Guruji’s two younger sons and Guruji’s mother. And all three of them went towards Saheri village. And both Bade Sahibzade and Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Chamkaur Sahib went away with some of their Sikhs.

Battle of chamkaur: The very next day a fierce battle took place in the fort of Chamkaur. 40 of one tr Guruji. There were Sikhs and on the other hand, an army of 10 lakhs of Mughals, despite having little education, faced the enemy with great bravery and courage. Baba Ajit Singh ji and Baba Jujhar Singh ji were martyred in this war, both of them were only 17 years and 13 years old, blessed is Guru Gobind Singh ji who saw his two sons die in front of his eyes. saw ! 40 lessons, the Mughals were badly defeated in this war, which was overshadowed by the 10 lakh army of the enemies. They failed to catch Guruji.

Chhote sahibjaade and mata Gujri ji after vichhoda of sarsa nadi: After getting separated from Sarsa river, Mata Gujri ji and the younger Sahibzade (Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh) reached Saheri village while walking, it was bitterly cold at that time!! Mataji met her old cook Gangu Brahmin who took her to his home. Mataji trusted Gangu but Gangu stole Mataji’s precious ornaments and handed them over to the Mughals by deceit. He was given various temptations to accept Islam, but being the son of Guru Gobind Singh, he did not budge, rather he was ready to be martyred. Gujri ji heard the news that the younger Sahibzade was walled up alive by the Mughals on 27 December 1704 AD. Mother Gujri ji. He also gave up.

Macchiwara jungle: When Guru Gobind Singh ji came to know this sad news of Chhote Sahibzade and Mata Gujri ji, then came out of his mouth tera bhana meetha laage. During the orders of the Sikhs, Guru Sahib had to leave the fort of Chamkaur, when Guru Sahib was going there, he took off his slippers as soon as he got out of there, the Singhs requested that Guru Sahib was very cold and the path was also thorny. Please put on the pair of slippers, then Guru Sahib replied that the holy feet of my Shaheed Singhs who are fighting in the battlefield ahead, while fighting, many of their turbans will also be turn off, and in the darkness of the night and the darkness of the night. It may be that my shoes are kept on someone’s feet and in this way I don’t want to desecrate his holy martyrdom and his feet, so Guru Sahib did not put shoes on his feet from garhi to the entire journey,  Guru Sahib chose bare feet only. where he suffered a lot. This time was such that Guru ji was left completely alone, neither he had any Sikhs nor any family with him. all attained martyrdom .That’s why Guru ji is called as Sarabsandani!! Filled with disinterest, then Guru ji said at the same place “mitra pyaare nu haal mureed da kehna” hymns were composed.

Leave from machhiwara jungle: Wazir Khan had spread his spies everywhere to find Guru ji, on getting a clue, he came to Machhiwara, where Guru ji could be easily caught, only then 2 devotees of Guru ji, Nabi Khan and Gani Khan, Guru ji Brought him to his home with great respect. The soldiers of the Mughals could reach there anytime, realizing the danger, those two brothers made Guru ji sit in a palanquin and started taking him to a safe place, as soon as the Mughals reached a little distance, stopped the palanquin and asked, Navi Khan told  that this is our uchh Da Pir,  enemy gave permission to go.

Zafarnama: Guru ji after a few days. Wrote a letter to Aurangzeb, which is called Zafarnama in Persian. In Zafarnama, Guruji strongly opposed Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance and said that it was right for him to take up the sword against the tyrannical Mughals!Even though many Sikhs have been martyred including the four sons, but remember thousands of my sons are still alive.

Battle of muktsar and 40 mukte; On 29 December 1705 AD, Guru ji fought the last war of his life with the Mughals in Khidrana, it is called the Battle of Muktsar. Those 40 Sikhs were very sorry for their mistake, that’s why they fought that war with bravery, in this war also like the previous wars, they had few Sikhs, but they won this war with bravery and courage. Those 40 Sikhs were also martyred in this war. Before martyrdom, those Sikhs apologized to Guru ji and prayed that Guru ji should tear that design letter. Seeing his sacrifice, he tore the design letter at the same moment. Only after this incident!! He became immortal by the name of Sikh 40 Mukte, in his memory the place in Ghirrana came to be called Muktsar.

Literary Contributions: Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a prolific writer and composed numerous literary works, including poetry, epics, and philosophical texts. In 1706 AD, Guruji reached Damdama Sahib where he revised the book with the help of Bhai Mani Singh ji and named it Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, in which he also included the Bani of his father Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. And Guruji’s bani is written in  the Dasam Granth, which contains hymns, prayers, and philosophical writings. His writings provide guidance, inspire courage, and instill a sense of devotion among Sikhs.

The Code of Conduct: To ensure the cohesive development of the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji established the Sikh Code of Conduct, known as the Rehat Maryada. This code outlined the principles and practices that Sikhs should adhere to, promoting discipline, morality, and spiritual growth. The Rehat Maryada continues to guide Sikhs in their daily lives and serves as a unifying force within the Sikh community.

Relationship with Aurangjeb ‘s  son: After Aurangzeb’s death in 1707, his son Bahadur Shah became the new king. Guru ji helped a lot in making Bahadur Shah the king. Guru ji loved everyone equally, being a saintly soldier, he had no enmity or opposition in his mind for anyone. Guruji had helped Bahadur Shah a lot in the war of succession between Bahadur Shah’s brothers, since then Bahadur Shah and Guruji had a good relationship

Moved to nanded, passing of guruji: In 1708 AD, Guru ji moved to Nanded Maharashtra, then he met a person named Madho Das Bairagi! Guru ji. He was so impressed by listening to the words of Guru ji that he became a follower of Guru ji, Guru ji made him drink nectar and named him Banda Singh Bahadur, then Guru ji ordered him to go to Punjab, Guru ji named Banda Singh Sent after giving 5 pyare, nagara and nishan sahib.On the other hand, Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind did not like the growing friendship of Guru ji and Bahadur Shah. He sent two of his Pathans to Nanded to kill Guruji. Once when Guru ji was resting in his room, a Pathan stabbed Guru ji twice with a knife. Guru ji beheaded Pathan at that very moment. But Guru ji was badly injured. The second Pathan was killed by Guruji’s Sikhs and Guruji’s wound was treated.But due to the depth of the wound, when there was no hope of his recovery, then on October 6, 1708, Guru ji declared Guru Granth Sahib Ji as 11 Gurus and ordered that from now on there would be no corporeal Guru. Guru Granth Sahib Ji will be our Guru from now on. On October 7, 1708 AD, Guru Gobind Singh Ji became a jot forever.

Legacy and Impact: Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s legacy extends far beyond his time on Earth. His teachings continue to inspire Sikhs to embrace the path of righteousness, fearlessness, and selfless service. The establishment of the Khalsa Panth and the principles embodied by the Khalsa remain central to Sikh identity and practice. Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s emphasis on social justice, equality, and spirituality resonates with individuals of all backgrounds, promoting universal values of compassion and courage.

Conclusion: Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s life and teachings remain a beacon of inspiration for millions of Sikhs and individuals from diverse backgrounds. His commitment to social justice, spiritual enlightenment, and the formation of the Khalsa continues to influence generations. Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib ji ‘s biography and life and lessons

Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib ji

Introduction: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji, the ninth Guru of Sikhism, is revered for his courage, sacrifice, and unwavering commitment to upholding religious freedom and human rights. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s life was marked by his deep spirituality, selflessness, and defense of oppressed communities. His martyrdom continues to inspire Sikhs and people around the world to stand up for justice and religious tolerance.

Early Life and Spiritual Education: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji was Born on April 1, 1621, in Amritsar, Punjab to Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji , the sixth Sikh Guru and Mata Nanki ji’s House. They had 4 brothers , there name was baba gurditta ji , baba suraj mall ji , baba ani rai ji and baba atal rai ji.  they  also had an sister whose name was bibi veero ji. Guru Teg Bahadur ji was the youngest son of the family. Guru teg bahadur ji’s first name was tiag mall.  From an early age, he received a comprehensive education in Sikh scripture, philosophy, and martial arts. You were a master of swordsmanship. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji imbibed the values of humility, compassion, and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment. At the age of 14 , you fought battle with the Mughals under the leadership of   guru hargobind sahib ji.  Guru Hargobind Sahib ji pleased with the way tyaag mall showed  swords skill in the war, your father considering you a master of swords , named you Teg bahadur from tyag mall.

Marriage:  At the age of 11 , guru Teg Bahadur sahib ji  married mata Gujri ji on 14 september 1632, in kartarpur. Mata Gujri kaur’s father name was lal chand and mother’s name was  bibi Bishan kaur ji.

Finding 9th Guru of Sikhism & handed over Guruship : When 6th Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji saw the end time approaching, he declared his grandson Shri Har Rai Ji as the seventh Guru of the Sikhs on March 19, 1644 AD, considering him worthy of the throne. Praying humbly, said Maharaj, you did not pay attention to our son Teg Bahadur at the time of Gurgaddi. Guru ji then promised that after leaving my body, you along with your family should settle in the village Bakala, my son Tag Bahadur would get the throne when the time comes. After the death of Guru Hargobind Sahib, Bibi Nanaki along with her family moved to village Bakala Guru teg bahadur ji meditated at baba bakala। for about 26 years 9 months  and 13 days. At the same time, before leaving his body, the seventh Guru of Sikhs, Har Rai Ji, declared his 5-year-old son Shri Harkrishna Ji as the eighth Guru of Sikhs in 1661, considering him worthy of the throne!! When Guruji was 8 years old, he was struck with smallpox. In 1664 AD, when you made the last promise to Guru Baba Bakale, the group understood that the 9th Guru of the Sikhs was in Bakale. Mata Nanaki ji knew that now her son Guru Tegh Bahadur ji is going to appear as the 9th Jot of Guru Nanak Dev ji. Seeing this one day, his mother said, “Son, you appear in the company and give darshan to everyone and fulfill their wishes. Guru ji did not answer, again he got absorbed in the tomb.” On the other hand, Guru Har Rai Ji’s elder brother Baba Dheer Malla who was trying to get the throne since 1645 AD. He had a copy of Adi Granth. Due to which he sat on the throne in Bakala and claiming to be a copy of Adi Granth, started telling everyone that I am the Guru of Baba Bakale. Similarly, many liars sat on Baba Bakale by putting their own thrones. Seeing this scene, the learned people got confused that after all the car belongs to the 9 Gurus of the Sikhs;! Makhan Shah was a businessman, often used to go abroad in the matter of business. One day he was coming from abroad carrying goods!! But due to a sudden storm in the sea, the ship started sinking. He was very nervous, being helpless in front of nature, he meditated on Guru ji with folded hands and prayed!! I am a servant of Guru Ghar, help me Maharaj. And put this ship on the shore somehow, I will gift you 500 pieces when my wish is fulfilled. When Antaryami Guru ji heard Makhan Shah’s prayer, he took his sinking ship across. In this way Guru ji fulfilled the prayer of his servant!! Makhan Shah sold all his goods as soon as the ship crossed, and after fulfilling his wish reached Punjab to meet Guru ji!! After coming there, he came to know that the 9th Guru Ji Baba of Sikhs lives in Bakle, but the Sangats did not know his name. Many people were calling themselves Baba Bakala Wala Guru sitting in their own seat, in the cloak of the Guru. Then Makhan Shah thought that the Guru who would ask for 500 pieces of his wish from me would be the true Guru, he bowed before all the gurus by placing 2-2 pieces, but no one asked for the remaining pieces, he did not understand that here All the hypocrites are sitting here. Then he kept asking in search of the true Guru, at last he reached to Shri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, he bowed his head by placing 2 pieces in front of him. On seeing the pieces, Guru Tegh Bahadur smiled and said, Makhan Shah, you have now sought a vow of 500 pieces of the Guru’s house. He is giving 2 pieces, you should give the whole wish of Guru Ghar. Guru ji. After listening to this word from the mouth, he was fully convinced that this is the true Guru, and the ninth lamp of Guru Nanak Dev Ji! They happily went to the garden! Without wasting a moment, I bowed down before Guru ji after placing 500 pawns! To tell this happiness of his to the whole world, he climbed on the roof, waving the cloth in his hands, he started saying loudly guru laadho re guru laadho re That means Guru ji has been found!! In this way it became known to everyone that Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is the 9th Jot of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

On 16 April 1664 AD, Guru ji was handed over the Guruship of the 9 Gurus of the Sikhs.

Fired at guruji: Once Shihe Masand got angry and fired at him, which came out empty, and nothing happened to Guru ji. Seeing all this, Makhan Shah became very angry, he took some men with him and took all the gifts raised from the Guru’s court from Dhir Malla’s camp and also the copy of Adi Granth to Guru Tegh Bahadur’s court. By the time Guru Tegh Bahadur ji came to know about this, you convinced Makhan Shah and sent all the things back to Dheer Mal’s camp.

No entry in darbar sahib : Once after listening to the prayer of Makhan Shah, Guru Tag Bahadur ji went to Darbar Sahib!! When the sevadars of Darbar Sahib came to know that Guru Tegh Bahadur ji had come to Darbar Sahib with Makhan Shah, they thought that he might become a guru and with the help of Makhan Shah, he would not get his rights on Darbar Sahib, so the sevadars made Darbar Sahib for Guruji K closed the wall. Seeing the door, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji said to Makhan Shah that he did not like our arrival, that’s why we do not want to stay here for a long time. Having said this, the Guru left alone and sat under the berry tree. The place where Guru ji stayed outside the city is called Damdama Sahib Gurdwara. For some time Guruji stopped under a Peepal tree outside the village waiting for Makhan Shah, then Hariya’s mother brought you to her home with great love, she put Guruji on the bed in her terace and made Guruji rest. Served. Guru ji stayed there for one night. When the sangats of Amritsar came to know that Guru ji was insulted by the sevadars of Darbar Sahib and did not even allow you to have darshan, then they and the sevadars started apologizing to Guru ji. Then Makhan Shah also went to Darbar Sahib. Returned to Guru ji after visiting. The servants who came there said to Guru ji that we are only servants, you Guru is the owner of the house, please forgive our mistake. His talk Guru ji uttered a verse after listening!!

ਨਹੀਂ ਮਸੰਦ ਤੁਮ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰੀਏ

ਤ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨਾ ਅਗਨ ਤੇ  ਅੰਦਰ ਸੜਿਏ

nahin masand tum amritsariye

trishna agan te ander sadiye

That means you don’t deserve to be called Amritsari Masand. From then on you will only be burning in your heart with the fire of longing and remorse. Hearing such words, Masand returned repentant.

Spiritual Teachings and Legacy: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s spiritual teachings emphasized the pursuit of truth, righteousness, and selfless service. He stressed the importance of standing up against injustice, defending the rights of the oppressed, and promoting religious harmony. His teachings continue to inspire Sikhs to cultivate a sense of social responsibility, compassion, and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment.

Impact on Sikhism and Beyond: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s martyrdom served as a turning point in Sikh history and ignited a sense of resilience and determination among the Sikh community. His sacrifice inspired Sikhs to uphold their faith in the face of adversity and strengthened their commitment to defending religious freedom and human rights. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s martyrdom became a catalyst for the Sikh community’s evolution into a powerful force for social justice.

Travelling of guruji : It is recorded in Guru Ji’s Sakhi that while living in Baba
Bakala, you visited holy places like Goindwal Sahib, Kiratpur, Haridwar,
Mathura, Agra, Gaya, etc. Kept adding donations. Apart from this, after staying
in Prayagraj for 6 months, he left from there to save the company of the next places.
Your only purpose of traveling was to get the misguided people out of confusion
and connect them in the name of the true Lord.

Children : After 34 years of marriage, in 1666 AD, the child
Gobind Rai was born in the city of Patna.

Kahmiri pandits went to meet guruji : In those days, Mughal king Aurangzeb was determined to destroy Hindu religion, he issued a decree that no Hindu would be appointed to any high position in the state. Only Hindu people have to pay tax to go to religious places, and many such taxes were imposed against Hindus. Hindus were forced to remove their sacred thread!! His arbitrariness and atrocities increased day by day, now they have become unbearable for Hindus. The limit was reached when even Aurangzeb started torturing Kashmiri Pandits. Many temples were demolished and mosques were built in their place!! When Kashmiri Pandits did not understand what to do next? So he came to the shelter of Guru Teg Bahadur ji, started crying in front of Guru ji, O true king, Hindu religion is in danger, Aurangzeb’s cruelty has died so much that we are being forced to become Muslims, and this is not so. For doing this, we are given various kinds of tortures. If someone does not adopt Hindu religion, his family has to bear the loss of life, the respect of daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law is also at stake, that’s why Maharaj, please protect our Hindu religion. On hearing all this, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji got lost in deep thought. At that time your nine year old boy, Gobind Rai was sitting with you. He said to father, what are you thinking? Then Guru ji said son, at this time the atrocities on Hindus are increasing from the side of Mughal government, and Hindu religion is in danger, if Aurangzeb is not stopped then not a single Hindu will be left, all will become Muslims. Such a great man is needed to protect religion! The one who can protect Hindus by sacrificing himself. After listening to father’s words, Balak Gobind ji naturally said that father, at this time, who else is bigger on earth who can protect their religion, if the problem of sacrifice can be solved, then you yourself sacrifice yourself and help Kashmiri Pandits. Can save Guru ji said to Gobind Rai!! You are still very young who will take care of you without me. Gobind Rai ji said, the Lord who protected me for 9 months in the mother’s womb will also protect me. Hearing such a thing from the mouth of the child, the pundits started asking with surprise, if your father gets martyred in the fire, you will become an orphan. Gobind Rai ji answers that lakhs of children are saved from being orphaned by being orphaned alone, if lakhs of mothers are saved from being widowed by my mother being widowed, then my decision will be right, I have no dilemma. Pandit ji was very happy to hear this from his promising child, Guru ji told the Pandits to send news to Aurangzeb that if our Anandpur resident Guru Teg Bahadur ji can accept Islam, then only we will accept Islam. Then the pundits sent this news to Aurangzeb!! Immediately the emperor sent a nomination to Guru ji to come to Delhi, Guru ji left for Delhi with some Sikhs with him. When Guru ji reached Agra on the way, as soon as he reached there, Emperor Aurangzeb cleverly imprisoned him, sent him to Delhi and imprisoned him. Badshah sent you a message in which it was written that if Islam is our religion, then the whole country will follow you, all Hindus will also become Muslims after seeing you, if this way there will be one religion in the country, then the quarrels about religion will end. . After hearing this, Guru ji said with Aurangzeb that you want to have only one religion in the whole country. But what if God wants there to be 3 religions instead of 2? Aurangzeb said how can this happen? Then Guruji spoke!! To decide this matter, try burning one red chili as evidence, if after burning the evidence remains in the ashes, then only one religion will be accepted by God in the future and if 2 chilies come out as evidence, then tomorrow there will be 2 religions, And if three chillies come out of the ashes as evidence, then understand that apart from these two religions, a third religion will also be formed. When Aurangzeb tried this, 3 chillies were found in it, the emperor was very surprised to see this decision.

Guru Ji  and her beloved ones in Jail of Aurangjeb, Passing of Guruship to Guruji’s son : When Guru ji did not accept to become a Muslim in any way, the king sent a message to you, that if you do not want to become a Muslim, then show some miracle. Then Guru ji said, Karamat is the name of havoc, which we do not want to do. So much and Aurangzeb said that if you do not accept your religion of Islam and do not even show miracles, then get ready to die. Then Guruji said that your first and second point is not acceptable but the third point (killing) is acceptable to us. Some Sikhs were also imprisoned along with them, when Guruji did not accept Islam religion, then to scare you, he gave the order to martyr your servants Bhai Matidas ji, Bhai Satidas ji and Bhai Dayala ji by giving them severe pain. Bhai Mati Dasji was cut into two parts by Qazi with a saw. Bhai Sati Das ji was burnt wrapped in cotton. And Bhai Dyaala ji was boiled by putting him in a boiling pot of water. The true servants of Guru ji gave martyrdom every now and then. Again a message was sent to Guru ji on behalf of Aurangzeb, that accept Islam or else you will be treated the same way. The remaining three seekhs, Bhai Gurdita, Bhai Udo and Bhai Cheema ji remained with Guru ji. Seeing his last time coming near, Guru ji promised these three servants that you should return to your homes, now there is no use of staying here. They prayed O Maharaj, our hands and feet are tied with chains and the doors are locked!! How can we get out of here? Guru ji promised you recite this word,

ਕਾਟੀ ਬੇੜੀ ਪਗਹੁ ਤੇ ਗੁਰਕੀਨੀ ਬੰਦ ਖਲਾਸ

kati bedi paghu te gurkini khalaas

And after reciting this word, your chains will automatically break and the locks of the doors will open, no one will see you. Following Guruji’s promise, Bhai Udo and Bhai Cheema, being free in this way, went to their homes. The point to be noted here is that Guru ji was intuitive and a great personality possessing immense power whose words uttered by him had such power that all the chains were opened and the doors opened automatically. If you wanted, you could have escaped from the clutches of the oppressor in the blink of an eye. No one is going to imprison you in this world. You just lived up to the principle of ‘tera bhana meetha laage’ by following Nirankar’s order. Sending verses and gurgaddi to guru gobind singh. See your end times drawing near! Guru ji sent a verse to his family in Anandpur to give them patience and to obey the Lord!

ਗੁਣ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਗਾਇਓ ਨਹੀਂ ਜਨਮ ਅਕਾਰਥ ਕੀਨੁ।

ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਹਰ ਭਜੁ ਮਨਾ ਕੇ ਬਿਧ ਕਓ ਮੀਨੁ।

gun gobind gayeo nahin janam akaarth keen

kahu nanak har bhaj manaa ke bidh kao meen 

In fact, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji had written fifty-seven verses in the prison of Chandni Chowk, which are recorded in Guru Granth Sahib Ji!! Along with these verses, Guru ji sent 5 paise and a coconut to Anandpur in 1675 AD by his Sikh and gave the 10th Gurgaddi to his son Shri Guru Gobind Singh ji.

Martyrdom of guruji: That dark day of 24 November 1675 AD has come. After sunset in Chandni Chowk, on the order of Aurangzeb, the executioner killed you with a single stroke of the sword. After this severe atrocity, there was a strong black storm, the whole sky turned red, from whose darkness brother Jaita ji got an opportunity, he took your holy head, hiding from the Mughals, wrapped in a cloth, walking continuously for 3 days to Anandpur Sahib to your family. Dedicated Taking advantage of this strong wind, Bhai Lakhi Shah Vanzara, a servant of Hor Guru’s house, brought your holy body to his house by hiding it in the goods of his bail cart. And to cremate Guru ji’s body, he burnt his entire house and offered it as a fire offering so that the Mughals would not be suspicious..

Legacy and Commemoration: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s martyrdom holds deep significance for Sikhs and serves as a reminder of the ultimate sacrifice made for religious freedom. The day of his martyrdom, known as Shaheedi Divas, is commemorated by Sikhs worldwide, honoring Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s courage and steadfastness. Gurdwaras and Sikh communities organize prayers, processions, and discussions to remember his martyrdom and the values he stood for.

Message of Religious Tolerance: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s martyrdom resonates far beyond the Sikh community, symbolizing the universal struggle for religious freedom and tolerance. His selfless act and unwavering commitment to defending the rights of others highlight the importance of respect, understanding, and acceptance of diverse religious beliefs. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s legacy serves as a beacon of inspiration for individuals and communities striving for religious harmony and coexistence.

Conclusion: Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s life and martyrdom stand as a testament to his unwavering dedication to upholding religious freedom and fighting against tyranny. His teachings and sacrifice continue to inspire millions of Sikhs and individuals worldwide to stand up for justice, equality, and the rights of all people, regardless of their beliefs. Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji’s legacy remains a guiding light for humanity, reminding us of the importance of compassion, tolerance, and the pursuit of truth.

Guru Harkrishan Sahib ji’s biography and life lessons

Introduction: Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji, the eighth Guru of Sikhism, holds a unique place in Sikh history as the youngest Guru to assume Guruship. Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s life was brief yet impactful. Despite his tender age, he exhibited extraordinary spiritual wisdom, compassion, and healing abilities. His life serves as an inspiration for devotees, emphasizing the power of faith and selfless service.

Early Life and gurgaddi: Guru Harkrishan Sahib ji Born on July 7, 1656, in Kiratpur Sahib, Punjab to the house of Guru Har Rai Sahib ji and Mata Krishan Kaur ji. he had an elder brother  whose name was baba ram rai he was 9 years older than him and elder sister whose name was Roop Kaur , she was 4 years older than him.  . From an early age, he displayed exceptional spiritual qualities and an innate understanding of divine wisdom. Once upon a time Baba Ram Rai ji and child Harkrishna ji were engrossed in Lord Simran. Then Guru Pita Har Rai ji wanted to test both the Sahibzads that which of the two is doing the Simran deeply!! He sent one of his Sikhs with a needle and asked both Sahibzadas to prick the needle alternately and see whose attention is distracted by the choice of that needle. When that Sikh pricked the needle to Ram Rai, he felt pain and because of the pain, A sound of Ooi came from the door and he opened his eyes by diverting his attention from the Simran, but when the same needle was pricked to the boy Har Krishna, he remained sitting still, Guru Pita Har Rai ji also used to see that the child Har Krishna ji used to take care of the Sikh sangat as much as the child Har Krishna ji. Yes, they don’t keep that much Ram Rai. When Guru ji used to give sermons to the Sangats, you always used to sit with Guru father and listen carefully to his thoughts and remember him!! And the child har Krishan Ji  along with the Guru father would have engaged in the service of the patients. And child har Krishan ji used to help Guru father in every work. t that time when Guru Har Rai Ji had gone to Joti Jot Sma, then Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji. He promised that no one should mourn for the famine, but Gurbani lessons and Shabd Kirtan should be done. At the age of five, Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji was anointed as the eighth Guru of Sikhism. Despite his youth, he shouldered the responsibility of guiding the Sikh community and serving as the spiritual leader. This unique circumstance allowed him to demonstrate his divine wisdom and exemplify the teachings of Sikhism.

dispensary: The dispensary established by Guru Har Rai ji, was later managed by Guru Har Krishan ji, along with medicine, Guru Har Krishan Sahib’s touch and sight had such a grace that the patient who took the medicine for the first time would be cured of his disease forever.

Jealousy of ram rai , invitation from aurangjeb: Guru Harkrishna’s time was full of serious challenges to Sikh history, as Aap’s elder brother Ram Rai was very angry with Aap ji for getting Gurgaddi. Somehow he kept on fighting to get the throne. Arrogant and selfish Vasand, who runs in his Agia, was not happy with Gur Har Rai ji’s decision. They only By making Baba Ram Rai ji the Guru, Guru Ram Rai ji was bent on looting and ruining the house. You have ordered Masando to go from place to place and tell the Sikh Sangats that the real Guru is Ram Rai ji and not Guru Har Krishna!!! At the same time it was also said that whatever is offered by the companions reaches Delhi from Sir Kiratpur. Then Baba Ram Rai wanted to take help from Aurangzeb for his rights, after all, on Baba Ram Rai’s request, Aurangzeb sent an invitation to Guru Harkrishna Sahib Ji to come to Delhi.

Coming to Delhi: The responsibility of bringing him to Delhi was handed over to Raja Jai Singh!! Which was already the Sharadalu of the Guru house. He made an agreement with the king that 1) Guru Har Krishna Ji would stay as a guest in Jai Singh’s palace in Delhi. 2) No harm should be done to Guru ji After satisfying all these things with the king, the king sent his special messenger Pars Ram to bring Guru ji from Kiratpur with respect. Guru ji’s family and the whole company were worried about Guru ji’s return to Delhi! Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji gave the decision to be adopted with fearlessness and courage!! Then Guru Ji left for Delhi from Kiratpur in 1664 AD!! While going to Delhi, you stayed in Panjokhare, a village ahead of Ambala, after reaching there. drew a line and ordered the Sangats to return to their homes except a few Sangats, they did not want to create any doubt by taking such a large number to Delhi. Seeing your young age, people doubted that what kind of rabbi knowledge you have that you have been elected as 8th Guru!! In that village, a Pandit named Lalchand, who was a scholar of many religious books and a scholar of culture, challenged Guru ji!!! That Shri Krishna ji had pronounced the Gita, your name is also Ha Krishna, so show the meaning of some verses of the Gita. After listening to this, Guru Har Krishna ji said that what is this matter, for this, bring forward any person from our company, he will also narrate the essence of the Gita. To test Guruji’s words, Pandit took Jhajhu Jhivar, who was dumb and deaf, from his village and presented him in front of Guruji, then Guruji put his hand of grace on the head of that mute and said, this Pandit Mann I have a doubt, remove the dilemma of their mind by giving them the meaning of the verses of Gita!! When Guru ji’s eyes fell on Jhevar, he started talking about the dumb and deaf Jhujhu Jhevar. When he narrated the meaning of very difficult shlokas, Pandit Lal Chand was astonished and bowed his head full of pride at the feet of the Guru. Guru ji appointed Pandit Lal Chand and Jhajhu Jhivar to promote Sikhism. When Harkrishna ji left Panjokhade, he was accompanied by Mata Krishna Kaur ji, Bhai Dargah Mal ji, Bhai Diyal Das ji, Bhai Gurditt ji and some special teachers. Guru ji then stayed at places like Kurukshetra, Panipat, Sonipat and Karnal etc. and spread Sikhism.

Reached delhi: reached Delhi Raja Jai Singh’s palace for a week. Then the king honored Guru ji and presented precious gifts to Guru ji in a silver plate, which Guru ji had distributed among the poor. Seeing your young age, Mata Jai Singh’s wife also got the same idea that Guru ji should be tested. Then the queen dressed as maids and sat among the maids, and decided in her mind that if Guru Harkrishna is the true Guru, he would recognize the queen and sit on her lap. When Antaryami Guru ji entered the queen’s palace, all the Dasiyas sat down bowing their heads to you. Guru ji holding the stick in his hand put it on the head of every maid and said, this too is not a queen, this too is not a queen. But when it was the queen’s turn, Guru ji put a stick on the queen’s head and said that she is the queen. And went and sat on the lap of the queen. Apart from this, Jai Singh conveyed the news of Guruji’s arrival in Delhi to Aurangzeb. Then Aurangzeb sent his prince to visit Jai Singh’s Mahal Guru Ji. The prince offered gifts to Guruji on behalf of Emperor Aurangzeb and prayed Guru Maharaj, that the emperor wants to see you. Guru ji said, it is our vow that we will become a king. The prince was so impressed after meeting Guru ji that he went and told the whole thing to the king that even though Guru ji is a child in his age, his understanding is like an old man.

The Smallpox Epidemic: In those days smallpox epidemic was spread in Delhi, when the news of Guruji’s arrival in Delhi reached the people, many patients were found. Started coming to Guru ji, whichever patient. Had he touched his feet and walked, that patient would have been cured in an instant. In this way, after hearing the glory of you, many patients started coming to you to cure their diseases. He got a tank made there, in which he got up every day and touched the water with his feet and turned it into nectar. From the same pool, the servants would give Charan Amrit to the patients, which slowly all the patients got well and started praising the glory of Guru ji. Hearing this, Guru Gobind Singh ji wrote the words 

ਸ੍ਰੀ ਹਰਿ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਧਿਆਈਐ ਜਿਸ ਡਿਠੈ ਸਭਿ ਦੁਖ ਜਾਇ

shri harkrishan  dhiyaayiye jis dithe sab dukh jaye

It meant that by remembering Guru Har Krishna ji all kinds of sorrows go away.

Passing of guru ji: While serving the patients, one day Guru ji became very ill, he became very hungry. Guru ji got smallpox on the very second day of hunger. When your illness did not get cured for 1-2 days!! Then you left the palace of Raja Jai Singh and started living by pitching your tent on the banks of Yamuna river. So that Raja Jai Singh does not have to face any problem. When Guru ji’s health worsened, the Sikh Sangat prayed to Guru ji and asked, O Maharaj, whose responsibility are you leaving us with? Who will inherit the throne? Whom will you hold the arms of Sangat? Then Guru ji asked his Masand brother Gurbaksh ji for 5 paise and coconut and said while bowing his head

  ਬਾਬਾ ਬਸੇਹ ਜਿ ਗਰਾਮ ਬਕਾਲੇ
ਬਨ ਗੁਰ ਸੰਗਤ ਸਕਲ ਸਮਾਲੇ

baba baseh je garaam bakaale

ban gur sangat sakal samale

This means that the 9th Guru lives in Bakle village (Punjab) who will become a Guru and do good company.In a few moments, Guru ji left his body and went to Sachkhand. Guru Harkrishna Ji was the master of wonderful powers, due to which he took the Sikhs to great heights, through whose darshan only the sorrows of the afflicted would be removed..

Legacy and Impact: Despite his short life, Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s impact on Sikhism and its followers remains profound. His spiritual wisdom, healing abilities, and selfless service left an indelible impression on the Sikh community. Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s teachings continue to inspire devotees to cultivate compassion, serve humanity, and seek spiritual enlightenment.

Conclusion: Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s life stands as a testament to the power of divine grace and the innate wisdom that transcends age. Despite his young age, he exemplified the core principles of Sikhism through his compassion, healing abilities, and unwavering devotion. Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s legacy serves as a guiding light for Sikhs, reminding them of the transformative power of faith, selfless service, and the recognition

Guru Har Rai Sahib ji’s biography and life lessons

Guru Har Rai Sahib ji

Introduction: Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji is the 7th Guru from the 10 Sikh Guru. Guru Hargobind Sahib ji was a beacon of compassion, peace, and spiritual enlightenment.  Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s life exemplified the virtues of humility, service, and love for humanity.

Early Life and Spiritual Education: Guru Har Rai Sahib ji born on 5 febuaray 1630  in house of baba Gurdita ji(son of Guru Hargobind Sahib ji) and mata nihal kaur ji in kiratpur Sahib.Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji was the grandson of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, the sixth Sikh Guru.

From a young age, he received comprehensive spiritual education and imbibed the values of compassion, kindness, and humility. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s profound love for nature and animals was nurtured, reflecting his deep connection with all living beingsIn 1638, his father gurditta ji died  at the age of 24. Guru Hargobind Sahib ji gave the throne to Guru Har Rai Sahib ji, he became the 7th Sikh Guru at the age of 8 years, In 1644.

Marriage: Guru Har Rai Sahib ji married to Mata Kishan Kaur ji, they had 2 sons 1st baba Ram Rai ji and 2nd Guru Harkrishan sahib ji . guruji passed gurgaddi to  guru  harkrishan sahib ji , then he was only 5 years old .

Hostility of Baba Dhirmal : Baba Dhirmal was the elder brother of Guru Ji , he was nature. Kebde was fickle, clever and greedy. Seeing the child’s playfulness, he named him Dheermal so that he could have patience. Most of his life was spent in Kartarpur, he did not attend the rituals of his father Baba Gurditt Ji even after repeatedly sending messages , when Guru Har Rai Ji got Gurdaddi he could not tolerate him sitting on the throne , him Jealous of my little brother!!! Out of jealousy, he joined the Mughals, and began to plot against his brother Guru Har Rai Ji. Once Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji fought the war of Kartarpur with Bhainde Khan in that war Baba Dhirmal had secretly supported Bhaind Khan, for this reason Shah Jahan was pleased with Dhirmal and gave him a lot of Jagir of Kartarpur.

Dhirmal took adigranth: Due to the presence of Shri Adigranth Ba Dhirmal, compiled by Fifth Guru Arjan Dev Ji, in Kartarpur, he used to complain a lot then. That’s why Baba Dhirmal started calling himself Guru, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji. Baba Dhirmal was called to him but he never came. A few years later, Aurangzeb had Dhirmal killed in captivity on 25 January 1677.

Promotion of Humanitarianism: Guruji used to exhort the Sangat daily to remember the Lord and remain in His will. To keep the Sikhs healthy, he also opened a dispensary, in which expert Vaids and Hakims were kept, every patient used to get free treatment without discrimination, they had such medicines which were not found anywhere in India. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s selfless service to humanity earned him the title of “Jagat Guru” (World Teacher).

Recover the health of dara shikoh: The Mughal emperor of that time was Shah Jahan, who loved his son Dara Shikoh very much, but this love of father and son did not suit Aurangzeb, the younger son of Shah Jahan, because he thought that the father would fall in love and make Dara Shikoh the next Mughal emperor. That’s why he used to plan to get his brother out of the way. One day Aurangzeb fraudulently put lion’s hair in Dara Shikoh’s food, after eating which his brother became very ill, stomach pain started coming, all the doctors were called but all the favors failed, in the end the doctors Said the treatment of this disease is available only in Guru Har Rai Ji’s dispensary!! Then Shahjahan would say to the gurus whom I have been attacking till now with my army, why would they give me medicine. And I am a king and he is a simple person, asking for medicine from him would be an insult to me, then the Vedas explained that there is no discrimination in the house of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, every kind of person is treated in his medicine. Yes, you shouldn’t be insulted in doing so!! Following his advice, Shah Jahan wrote a letter to Har Rai ji and sent the letter to Kiratpur to two servants, at the same time Guru ji called his doctors and asked them to give medicine, the servants returned with the medicine. When Dara Shikoh was given the medicine, he recovered within a few days. After recovering, Dara Shikoh reached Kiratpur to thank Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji, gave gifts and also bowed down, he said that I have been blessed with life by your grace, Guru Ji said that life and death belong to Allah. It is in hand, no one can kill the one on whom he blesses, that’s why you take shelter of only one.

Saved Shikoh’s life: When Shahjahan declared his son Dara Shikoh as the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb and his other brothers wanted to kill Dara Shikoh, he reached Guru Hargobind Sahib to save his life, Guru ji helped him after seeing his bad condition. . When Aurangzeb came to know that Har Rai ji had helped Shikoh, he started considering Guru ji as an enemy, for which he conspired to catch Guru Har Rai ji. Aurangzeb attacked Guru Har Rai ji 3 times, but he had to face defeat all the three times.

Aurangjeb sent invitation to Guruji : When Aurangzeb found something wrong with Guru Har Rai ji for three years, he sent an invitation to Guru ji to come to Delhi, but Guru ji did not want to see the face of that ruthless regime, the ruler who imprisoned his father to gain power. Made and got the brothers, sisters and nephews cut. How can he be someone’s relative, that’s why Guru Har Rai ji did not go himself but sent his elder son Baba Ram Rai ji to Delhi with his special Sikhs. Guru ji explained to him that always be dependent on the Guru, consider the Guru as a part, do not flatter Aurangzeb, do not show any weakness. When Aurangzeb asked Ram Rai ji after going to Delhi, why did Guru Har Rai ji help his brother Dara Shikoh? So. Baba Har Rai Ji replied that Guru Ji helps the needy, the suffering, does not have enmity with anyone. And after that many questions were answered by Baba Ram Rai Ji, he fearlessly answered all the questions. Aurangzeb was very impressed with him and honored him. Actually Aurangzeb was a staunch Muslim!!! They wanted to make Ram Rai ji a Muslim After this Aurangzeb asked the Qazis that Guru Nanak Dev Ji. who has written in his bar that

mitti musalmaan ki perai payi kumehar
Mitti musalman ki perai payi kumehaar

What is the meaning of this verse, then Baba Ram Rai ji answers that Guru Nanak ji has not said the soil of Muslim but the soil of dishonest, but by mistake the soil has been written as Muslim in the Adi Granth!! Baba Ram Rai ji slipped from the principles learned in this!! When Guru Har Rai ji heard this, he was very angry with him, that his son Ram Rai did not stand up to his principles, he was not capable of handling the responsibility of a Sikh, so Guru ji said to Ram Rai, you have done the work of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Baba Ram Rai ji got along with Aurangzeb after this incident, after that he never saw Guru ji again.

Consolidation of Sikhism: During his Guruship, Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji actively worked to consolidate Sikhism and strengthen the Sikh community. He expanded the network of congregational gatherings and spiritual discourse, enabling Sikhs to gather, learn, and engage in devotional practices. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji also continued the practice of organizing langars (community kitchens), fostering a spirit of equality and community service.

Teachings of Guru Har Rai Ji: The teachings given by you are for every human being to remember and imbibe in life, you used to say, remember, do true and good deeds, stay away from bad deeds, work, anger etc. avoid five disorders,  Don’t forget to serve the parents, keep your mind high and connect your heart with God, definitely take out Dasavand from your earnings (tenth of your earnings)

Promotion of Spiritual Enlightenment: Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji encouraged Sikhs to seek spiritual enlightenment through meditation and the remembrance of God’s name (Naam Simran). He emphasized the significance of connecting with the Divine within and attaining inner peace and contentment. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s teachings inspired Sikhs to embark on their personal spiritual journeys and deepen their relationship with the Divine.

Passing of guruji , gurgaddi : When Guru Har Rai ji realized that now the body has come close to Tiagne’s body, he called his listeners by sending Hukamanma. They teach and explain to the companions that the Guru is like a change. They cool down the burning hearts of the people, show the right path to the people going on the wrong path and then merge into the Lord’s flame. Guru Ji declared his son Guru Harkrishna Sahib Ji as the eighth Guru of the Sikhs, on 6 October 1661 he died in Kiratpur.

Legacy and Impact:Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s compassionate nature and commitment to humanitarian service left an indelible impact on Sikhism and its followers. His teachings and actions demonstrated the importance of living a life of kindness, selflessness, and empathy. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s focus on the welfare of all, regardless of caste, creed, or religion, continues to inspire Sikhs to actively engage in humanitarian endeavors.

Conclusion: Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji, the seventh Guru of the Sikhs, embodied compassion, spirituality, and social responsibility. His life and teachings continue to resonate with people of all backgrounds, transcending time and borders. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’s legacy serves as a reminder of the importance of compassion, service, and harmony, inspiring individuals to embrace these values in their own lives and contribute positively to society.


Guru Hargobind Sahib ji’s biography and life lessons

Guru Hargobind Sahib ji

Introduction: Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, the sixth Guru of Sikhism, was a spiritual leader, warrior, and visionary who made significant contributions to Sikh philosophy and the Sikh community. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji’s life exemplified the integration of spirituality and worldly responsibilities. His teachings and actions continue to inspire Sikhs around the world.

Early Life and Spiritual Education: Guru Hargobind Sahib ji born on 19 june 1595, in guru ki wadali Amritsar.  Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji was the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji,  the fifth Sikh Guru. In childhood he was suffered from small pox. he survived 2 poisoning attacks by his uncle prithi chand as well as he survived the attack of cobra , who is thrown by prithi chand . From a young age, he received comprehensive training in martial arts, horse riding, and archery, along with a strong foundation in spiritual teachings.he also studied religious text from bhai gurdasji and  he learned swordsmanship and archery by baba budha ji. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji imbibed the values of courage, compassion, and devotion from his father.

Marriage:  guru hargobind Sahib  ji did 3 marriages. 1st wife’s name was mata damodari ji daughter of narain das and she gave birth to bhai gurditta ji and bibi veero and anni rai ji. 2nd wife’s name was bibi Nanki, she was the daughter of hari chand, she was the mother of guru teg bahadur ji. 3rd wife ‘s name was bibi Mahadevi , daughter of daya raam . she gave birth to suraj mall ji and baba atal ji 

Gurgaddi and Concept of miri piri: Guru Hargobind singh ji was 11 years old. When guru arjan dev ji had martyred. After martyred of guru Arjan dev ji , guru Hargobind Sahib ji became  guru on 11 june 1606 at kothri sahib near akal takhat sahib , Amritsar. When the formal rites were being performed by Baba Buddha on the gurgadi ceremony, previous gurus  weared an ascetic ornament on their seli. guru Hargobind Sahib ji told baba budha ji that adorn him to ruler’s feather and sword . then guru hargobind sahib ji put 2 swords , one sword on left side and other sword on right side. they titled name of both swords  that was miri piri that’s why they are  also known as miri piri de malak. in 2 swords , Miri shows the temporal, worldly aspect, in which governance, political power, and social responsibility are included. Guru Hargobind Sahib ji believes that Sikhs should not withdraw from the world but actively engage in it to promote justice, equality and human rights. . He encouraged Sikhs to develop physical strength, martial skills, and the ability to defend themselves and others against oppression. Piri shows the spritual side and represents religious and spiritual authority of the Guru . guru hargobind sahib ji accentuate the importance of spiritual knowledge, inner transformation, and practice of Sikh Principle.

First meeting with Jahangir of guru hargobind sahib ji: It is recorded in history that once Chandu Shah (who was Jahangir’s advisor) came with his daughter’s relation, he had brought a similar proposal at the time of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.  Guru Hargobind Sahib rejected this proposal because Guruji did not want to have any relation with his father’s murderers, he was very angry when Guru Sahib refused for the second time, he provoked Jahangir and said that Badshah Guru Arjan His son who is sitting on the throne of Dev ji, he has kept a lot of army, he has made a throne for himself to sit on, he looks like a king, wears weapons, he also has his army. Has done If he is not stopped now, he will rise against you any day. Instigated by Chandu Shah, Jahangir sent two of his servants to bring Guru Hargobind Sahib ji from Amritsar to Delhi with respect. Guru ji then took permission from Baba Budha ji and Mata ji and reached Delhi with his five servants, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji met Jahangir while he was alive, he made Guru ji sit on a beautiful throne with respect and asked. Hey Peeraj, there are two religions in our country, Hindu and Muslim, both religions follow different orders, Hindus say Ram and Muslims say Allah, both of them say their own religion is good, you tell which religion is better among these two? Guru ji said, listen Jahangir, only that religion is good, which makes good order, gets worship done, and does not hurt anyone! Jahangir liked this thing very much, and he was very impressed by the personality of Guru ji, then he offered 1000 rupees to Guru ji and bowed down, Guru ji gave all the money to the poor.

Hunting with Jahangir: One day Jahangir offered Guru ji his life in hunting. Accepting whom you also went hunting with him, suddenly a lion roared in front of Jahangir in the forest, hearing the roar of the lion, Jahangir’s servants were scared, no one could muster the courage to face the lion, then Jahangir did request to Guru ji to save me from this lion, then Guru ji saved Jahangir from death by killing the lion. Jahangir was impressed by the bravery of Guruji, thanked him.

Construction of Akal Takht Sahib: Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji constructed the Akal Takht Sahib, the highest temporal seat of Sikh authority, opposite the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in Amritsar. The Akal Takht Sahib served as the center for decision-making, addressing social, political, and religious matters. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji accentuate the importance of defending righteousness and standing up against tyranny

Defending Religious Freedom: Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji actively defended the fundamental right to practice one’s religion freely. He confronted the oppressive Mughal regime and engaged in several defensive battles to protect the religious and social rights of Sikhs and other oppressed communities. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji encouraged Sikhs to stand against injustice and uphold the values of righteousness and equality.

Concept of the “Saint-Soldier”: Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji introduced the concept of the “Saint-Soldier” within Sikhism. He accentuate  that Sikhs should strive for spiritual enlightenment while also being prepared to defend their faith and stand up for justice. This integration of spirituality and martial valor became a defining characteristic of Sikh identity.

  Bandi Chhor Diwas: Seeing the reconciliation of Jahangir and Guru ji, Chandu was very angry, he wanted to break their friendship, one day Jahangir got very hungry, even after a lot of treatment, his hunger was cured. If it did not happen, Chandu called an astrologer, gave him 500 rupees, and taught him that you should tell Patshah Jahangir that if a pious man prays for your good health by sitting in solitude in the Gwalior fort for 40 days, then this hunger can cure you. Yes, after listening to this astrologer, Jahangir asked his servant to find a great man, then Chandu said, Jahapana, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji is eligible for this work, if you pray to him and send him to the fort of Gwalior for 40 days. Your suffering will definitely go away, then Jahangir told the whole thing to Guru ji, Guru ji knew the future, even after accepting it, Guru ji entered the Gwalior fort with 5 Sikhs. Jahangir. Told the fort’s inspector Hari Das that Guru ji should not face any kind of trouble. When Mata Ganga ji came to know this, then Mata Ganga ji. Nebaba sent Budha ji to the fort of Gwalior to know the condition of Guru ji. Q. When he reached outside the fort of Gwalior, he was not allowed inside, so Baba Budha ji returned. When Guru ji did not come out even after 40 days, the Sikh Sangates were eagerly waiting for Guru ji to come out. On the other hand, Jahangir started waking up every night in fear, his sleep disappeared during the night, then Pir Mian Mir ji told the reason that you have hurt the beloved of God, the result of which you will get today. It has been, and earlier you had also martyred Guru Arjan Dev ji, now you have imprisoned his son at the behest of Chandu!! Whose fruit is inauspicious, listen to this. After Jahangir understood everything, only then he issued an order to release Guru Hargobind Sahib. but guru ji rejects to live until all imprisoned kings are also freed. then jahangir said Whoever can hold the robe of Guru Ji can leave it. thats why Guru Ji made a special robe with 52 toslas. Thus each ruler could hold on to the dress and be released. thats why bandi chhod diwas is celebrated.

Relationship with Shah jahan: After Jahangir’s death in 1627, his son Shah Jahan sat on the throne of Delhi, for some time he had good relations with Guruji, but due to instigation by Preeti Chand’s son Meherban and Chandu’s son, Shahjahan’s attitude towards Guruji changed. Changed so much that he started a war against Guruji, Guruji fought 4 wars with the Mughals, the first in Amritsar in 1634 and after some time fought the battles of Lehra Kartarpur and Phagwara, despite having limited army and resources, Sikhs got great success!! This increased the enthusiasm of the Sikhs

Legacy and Impact: Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji’s leadership and teachings had a profound impact on Sikhism and its followers. His emphasis on defending religious freedom and standing up against oppression inspired generations of Sikhs to fearlessly advocate for justice and equality. The Akal Takht Sahib became a symbol of Sikh sovereignty and an institution representing Sikh values.

Gurgaddi and joti jot: Guru Ji spent his last 10 years 1634 -1644 in peace in the city of Kartarpur . Abandoning the policy of war, he focused on religious works, his elder son Baba Gurditt ji helped a lot in the promotion of religion. Baba Gurditt ji would die at the age of 24. Then Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji gave the Satva of Guru Goshit to Guru Har Rai Ji, the younger son of Gurditta Ji, to learn. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji advised Sangat to read Bani and chant Satnam and never mourn our lives!! Told to follow the orders of Akalpurkh!! Guru Hargobind Sahib died on 19 March 1644 at Patalpuri, Kiratpur Punjab.

Conclusion : Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji’s teachings continue to guide Sikhs in navigating the challenges of modern-day life while maintaining a deep connection with spirituality. His legacy as the “Saint-Soldier” remains an enduring inspiration for Sikhs, emphasizing the importance of upholding righteousness and standing up for truth, justice, and equality.

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Sikh History Info