Jassa Singh Ramgarhia

Jassa Singh Ramgarhia: The Dynamic Sikh Warrior

Jassa Singh Ramgarhia

Introduction: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, a prominent figure in Sikh history, was a revered Sikh warrior and statesman who played a crucial role in defending Sikh interests and consolidating Sikh power. His leadership, military brilliance, and administrative capabilities made him one of the most respected and influential figures of his time. This article provides an overview of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s life, achievements, and legacy.

Early Life and Rise to Prominence: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was born on 5 May 1723 in the village of Ichogil, Punjab. He belonged to the Ramgarhia Misl, named after the fortified fort of Ramghar.

The family of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia has been associated with Guru Ghar for generations. On the day of Baisakhi in 1699, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded the Khalsa Panth, the first hundred Singhs who were baptized by Dashmesh Pita included Sardar Hardas Singh, the grandfather of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. They knew carpentry, so they were entrusted with the task of making weapons for the army of Guru Ghar. Bhai Hardas Ji performed this work very well. Bhai Hardas Ji fought many wars with Baba Banda Singh Bahadur after accepting the torch of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and was injured after the widow’s war. After the martyrdom of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, the Sikhs had no main leader until 1716-1733. During that time, Bhai Bhagwan Singh (Jassa Singh’s father) came to Icho Gill with his family. Bhai Bhagwan Singh was a fearless soldier and, with 200 followers, entered the royal Mughal army under the governor of Lahore, Khan Bahadur, where he became a renowned officer. Bhai Bhagwan Singh had five sons: Jai Singh, Jassa Singh, Khushal Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh. Jassa Singh was the second son, born in 1723. Sardar Jassa Singh Ji learned armor techniques and Gurmukhi from his father. From a young age, he embraced Sikhism and became a dedicated follower of the Sikh Gurus. Soon, under the leadership of Sardar Gurdayal Singh, Jassa Singh Ji drank Amrit from the Five Beloved Ones ( Panj Pyaare). Jassa Singh Ramgarhia Ji was not interested in carpentry work since his childhood, because as he grew older, his desire to work for the Sikh community grew stronger.

1st Battle Against Nader Shah: When Nader Shah was coming to India intending to loot Irani and when this news reached Sardar Jassa Singh, he went to war with his father. He fought so bravely in the war. In the war of 1738, Sardar Jassa Singh’s father was martyred, but Zakariya Khan, seeing his bravery, gave his family a Jagir of 5 villages near Amritsar and gave Sardar Jassa Singh the post of Rasaodar. The names of those villages were:- Vallah, Verka, Tung, Sultanwind, Chaba. Among them, the village of Wallah came to the share of Jassa Singh ji and this is where his political life began

Sikhs Forming Small Groups: Sikhs forming small groups That particular time of 1745 holds a special place in Sikh history, Zakaria Khan dies on July 1. Due to his 19 years as the governor, the Sikh community faced many difficulties. his two sons started fighting each other for the throne! Although the Sikhs had many golden opportunities, the Sikhs also started forming small groups and Sardar Jassa Singh also joined the group of Sardar Nand Singh Singhania. By the time the two boys of Zakaria Khan understood, the Sikhs had made a separate place.

Construction of Ramrouni Fort: One day, on the occasion of Baisakhi, all Sikhs were gathered together, their Sardar Sukha Singh Kalsi, Mani Kamboke urged the Sikhs to build the first fort for their protection, which will be named from Guru Ram Dass ji’s name!!! And the fort was named Ramroni, near Amritsar, Guru Ramdas ji built a well, around the same well, in 1748, the foundation stone of a crude fort was laid! Within a few days, this fort was completely done, in which Sardar Jassa Singh and his colleagues made a big contribution!

 

The Siege at Ramrouni Fort Ahmad Shah Abdali was defeated by Mir Mannu during a battle and on 9 April 1748, Mir Mannu became the subedar of Lahore and Multan, who, anticipating the growing Sikh population, issued orders to kill the Sikhs when the Sikhs sought help. They reached Adheena Begh towards Jalandhar, who was the subedar of that place, he was a very clever ruler. One day on the occasion of Diwali, when the Sikhs Harminder Sahib gathered in large numbers, Mir Mana asked the subordinate Bey to surround him. 500 Singhs were sitting in the fort of Ramrouni. Seeing that they entered the Sikh’s courage increased and he was ready to fight with them! Kaura Mall Jau was the hero of Adheena Beg. When Jassa Singh spoke to him, he consulted with Adhin Beg and lifted the siege from Ram Rauni. When Ahmad Shah got this news, he was coming from Kabul. Adhin Bagh embraced the Sikhs, and with the wisdom of Jassa Singh this crisis that came to the Sikh community was overcome.

From Jassa Singh to Jassa Singh Ramgarhia : Sardar Jassa Singh Ji became a respectable personality and it became clear that he could make a great sacrifice for the Panth. After this, the fort of Ramrawani was also named Ramgarh, and Sardar Jassa Singh was also appointed as its commander, so he and his companions were called Ramgarhia after their name! All the responsibility of Ramgarh Fort was entrusted to Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and he continued to build it from time to time!

Formation of Dal Khalsa: Ahmed Shah Abdali started attacks from Afghan!! On his way to Delhi, Punjab was located here to stop Ahmad Shah Abdali, Sikhs formed Dal Khalsa, which had 65 teams, and each team had a Jathedar!! Slowly the group got together and took the form of misals. On March 29, 1749, 12 misals were formed on the day of Vaisakhi!! Among them was Ramgarhia Missal, his Jathedar was Jassa Singh Ramgarhia!

Ramgarhia Misl: Most of the Jathedars of Ramgarhia misl were blacksmiths and carpenters. Because of which they started naming Ramgarhia after their name. At one time Jassa Singh Ramgarhia had 12000 soldiers, 6000 horsemen, and more than 360 forts and more than 40 lakhs of taxes were collected from that area. During the third attack of Ahmed Shah Abdali, only Diwan Kaura Mall was the support of the  Sikhs after his death!! Mir Mannu sat on his throne!! Now there is no way for the Sikhs and Mir to become very close to each other!

Attack on Ramgarhia Fort: Mir Mannu did a lot of oppression to the Sikhs, many Sikhs left Lahore and were tortured and martyred, but still he could not eliminate the Sikhs completely. Mir Mana was attacked and demolished Ramgarhia fort But Jassa Singh Ramgarhia managed to get out by breaking the wall!!

Abdali’s Attack on Punjab: In the year 1752, Mir Man died and the government began to weaken. On this occasion, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia started the construction of the Ramgarh Fort again, which kept the enemies in mind. In the year 1767, Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked for the last time, in which Abdali was getting success, he crossed the river Beas, but Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia were standing in front of him. With that attack of the Sikhs, Abdali’s army was swept away. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was injured in this battle. And the command of the army was in the hands of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia fought so bravely that Abdali’s army had to accept defeat. After this, his name became famous all over India!!

 

Jassa singh Ramgarhia captured areas Jassa Singh Ramgarhia along with his brother Jai Singh won some areas of Batale and Amritsar!! After the death of Adhina Baig in 1758 AD, the Pathans took over the rule which the Sikhs resisted very bravely. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s power increased due to being with the entire Sikh Panth. They then occupied Batala, Kadian Kalanur, Ghuman, Sri Hargobandpur, Dinanagar, Shahpur Kandi!! They soon conquered the areas of Tanda, Maniwal, Mangowal, Miani, Digalpur and Rohil. When Sardar Jassa Singh Ji Ramgarhia thought of occupying the hilly areas of the north, at that time no one thought of going to the north because of Punjab. The hill princely states were the most developed princely states in those days. Ghuman Chand, the ruler of a princely state, Sardar Jassa Singh Ji Ramgarhia, climbed Kot Kangre and agreed to pay 4000 rupees to Ghuman Chand. They paid taxes till 1774. Because of this stubbornness of Kangra, they easily gained authority over the rest of the hill kingdoms. After some time, the kings of Nupur and Chambe also disagreed. Made a permanent central state system. After that, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia annexed all the territories and established a permanent central state.

The rivalry between Ahluwalia and Ramgarhia: Since the borders of Ahluwalia, Ramgarhia and Masala were connected, there was occasional clash between them. As a result, tensions between the two parties arose.

The controversy between Ahluwalia and Ramgarhia and the battle for the Delhi government: When 60-70,000 Sikhs attacked Delhi with all their strength, the emperor vacated the throne occupied by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, which Ramgarh was unhappy with. He carried the stone throne, 6 feet 3 inches long, 4 feet 6 inches wide and 9 inches thick, on the back of elephants to Sri Amritsar and placed it in front of the Ramgarhiya Bungi where Sri Guru Granth Sahib was installed.

Capture of Ahluwalia by Ramgarhia brothers : As Jassa Singh Ahluwalia passed through Gurdaspur, Ramghar’s brothers Kushal Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh caught up with him. Jassa Singh left Ramgarhia with honors and gifts, but Holwalia did not forget the humiliation and swore that he would not remove the turban from his head until he had conquered the entire Ramgarhia region. He surrounded Jhosa Singh’s territory with other missiles. He was accompanied by Bhangi Ganda Singh and Janda Singh, Kanhiya Jai Singh and Hakit Singh, Charhat Singh Shukarchakia, Nahar Singh Chamariwala, and other chiefs who besieged the Ramgarh district. After a siege of four months, Tara Singh was killed and Khushi Singh was wounded. Of the 10,000 men only 4000 survived, Jassa Singh left his territory at Ramgarh and crossed the Sutlej with his Sikhs to Mathura in the Agra district.

Administrative Reforms and Good Governance: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was not only a skilled warrior but also an astute administrator. He introduced a range of administrative reforms aimed at ensuring efficient governance within his territories. These reforms focused on promoting justice, welfare, and the development of infrastructure. He encouraged trade and commerce, benefiting the local economy and strengthening the overall prosperity of the Sikh community.

Capital changed : In the beginning, his capital was Ramgarh, then later he made Sri Hargobidpur his capital, because he conquered them. Maharaj Ranjit Singh ji built 360 forts in the center of the area. Singhpur Barnala fort is the most famous among them.

Battle of kasur : After winning many important areas, Maharaja Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s hard work was discussed everywhere, he was seen as a responsible and powerful general. In the 18th century, Kasur city was considered the city of blessed! Because all the rich people lived there. In that area, there were 12 forts and a large army camp!Sardar Hari Singh Bhangu, Sardar Chars Singh Shukarchakiya, Maharaja Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Sardar Jai Singh Kanhaiya marched on the city with an army of 15000 !The real reason for this attack was looting rich wealth for supplies and weapons for the Sikh soldiers and the complaint made by the Pandit to Sikhs that pandit’s wife was forcibly taken away by the ruler of Kasur. Finally, the Sikhs came to the battlefield, and the ruler of Kasur, Usman Khan Kasuri, came in the battlefield with many soldiers and they were confronted!And finally the ruler died, the Sikhs looted diamonds, pearls, wealth, crores of rupees from Kasur Sahib.

Provinces of Delhi and Rajputana for five years: In Delhi he looted and burned the Mughal Palace and captured 4 cannons from the Red Fort. He then defeated the Nawabs of Panipat, Karnal and Meerut and started collecting ten thousand rupees a year. He also received large presents and gifts from the kings of Bharatpur, Dholpur and Jaipur Of these, a Gupti (sword in a staff) is preserved by the family, on which the name of Maharaja Jasa Singh Ahluwalia is written in gold letters.
The areas around Delhi held by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia included Hissar, Hinsi, Sambhal, Chandosi, Kashganj, Khurja, Sikandar, Meerut, Delhi, Panipat and Karnal. The states of Bharatpur, Dholpur and Jaipur also pay tribute to him.

 free the two daughters of Brahman: One day a Brahmin complained to him that Nawab Hisar had taken his two daughters Josa Singh always stood against violence and oppression and helped the victims. He attacked the Nawab, strangled him, freed the two girls, and handed them over to the Brahmins. Some Brahmins objected to receiving the girls, whom they expected to be defiled by Muslims, but Jassa Singh Ramgarhia gathered all the Brahmins and fed all the girls by hand. Therefore, girls are accepted in society.
Sadat Ali Khan, son of Nawab Hissar, gave Rs. 50,000 for the maintenance of the Nawabshah. A tribute of Rs 50,000 was also paid from the people of Hissar.  

 The Khalsa flag was hoisted around Delhi: When the Sikhs entered Delhi in 1783, after reaching Delhi, Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia first captured Mughalpur and then 30,000 troops gathered outside the 4 walls of Delhi and the wall in which the Sikhs entered through a hole, A gate was made on that wall. In this way, Sikhs occupied the red fort of Delhi. along with Jassa Singh Ragarhia, there were other generals of the Sikh Misal. Jassa Singh raised the Khalsa flag for five years in the present-day Haryana region, western UP, Delhi, and Rajputana. Here they got a lot of money and 4 guns and 12 thousand pillars of the Mughal artillery were also captured. A colorful stone slab with a crown, Takht-e-Taus was also found, which they took possession of. And the emblem of the Khalsa Raj was swung on the throne of  Delhi, where always issued orders to end the Sikh rule. That is still present in Ramgarhia Bunge, Amritsar. This sill is 6 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 9 inches thick.  

Back to Punjab: In 1783, Shakrachakia and Kanhaiya factories clashed. Since the Kanhaiya family was strong, Maha Singh looked for a strong partner He could not find a brave and capable commander like Josa Singh Ramgarh, so he called Punjab to help him Jai Singh, understanding the purpose, replied to Maha Singh, “If Jai Singh will bow his head and offer his daughter in marriage to Ranjit Singh, give back the fort of Kangra to Raja Sansar Chand, then you will all be good friends.” By rejoining, you’ll be against me again, so there’s no point in me joining your fight. To this reply, Mahasingh Raja, together with Sansar Chand and other hill kings, again sent a message saying, “If you help us against Jaisingh Kanhaya, we will not break our friendship with you.”

Return to Batala: Jassa Singh, finding the answer of Maha Singh and his friends satisfactory, set out with his army for Punjab Jai Singh Ramgarh, Maha singh and the hill kings suddenly besieged the fort of Kanhayia and sent a message to Jai singh to surrender and vacate the territory of Ramgarh If Jai Singh did not saying so, the team of Maha Singh, Jassa Singh and their friends destroyed the Kanhiya Factory area.
Jai Singh sent 8000 soldiers under the leadership of his son Garbaksh Singh who stopped Josa Singh, Maha Singh and their friends but Garbaksh Singh was killed by the arrows of Jasa Singh Jai Singh submitted to Jassa Singh. Jasa Singh also mourned the passing of Garbaksh Singh. He then started attacking Riarke.

Jai Singh objected again: Soon the cat was out of the bag. It happened as predicted and written by Jassa Singh to Ramgarh Maha Singh. Jai Singh married his grandson to Ranjit Singh. Maha Singh, along with Sansar Chand and other hill kings besieged Batala But after 20 days the siege had to be lifted.
When Jai Singh died, his queen Sada Kaur Kanhaya took over the government of Egypt With his son Ranjit Singh, Fateh Singh of Ahluwalia Mul, etc., he besieged Jassa Singh Ramgarh on the banks of the Beas in Mayani When a natural flood occurred in the Beas, where Kanhaiya Dera sank, Sada Kaur and Maharaja Ranjit Singh lifted the siege and returned to Gujranwala. However, Jassa Singh also lost his courage against Ranjit Singh at Ramgarh

protested against Ranjit Singh: In 1800, when Ranjit Singh ascended, the Sardar besieged him in Lahore. Bhangis, Ramgarhias and other Misals met to inspect Sardar Ranjit Singh’s booty. After Jassa Singh Ramgarhia grew old, the cover fell on his son Jodh Singh Ramgarhia who also joined the expedition along with other Sardars But the siege was lifted after the death of Sardar Gulab Singh, the chief of Missal. Shortly after this, in 1803, Jassa Singh also breathed his last due to high fever. And so ended the life of a great warrior. and the command of Misal fell to his son Jodh Singh

Some special events: After the assassination of Raja Alam Khan of Delhi, Bhambu Khan Jassa Singh, brother of Ghulam Khan, sought refuge from Ramgarhia. He was not only given waste and security but also a jagir in Mazha. When Laik Singh escaped from Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s prison and came under the protection of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, he fought with Maharaja Ranjit Singh for his protection for four months.

Brief Comparison of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Jassa Singh Ramgarhia:The two great leaders of the Misal period were Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Jassa Singh Ramgarhia Ahluwalia, who were close confidants of Kapur Singh, and whose legacy in view of his succession to Kaur Singh, enjoyed a special position among the Sikhs, while Ramgarhia had acquired a reputation for strength and courage. When all who yearn decide together, the guidance of both is accepted. Their courage is unmatched. The Ahluwalia remained confined to the Punjab, but the Ramgarhia also spread beyond the Punjab to the states of Himachal, Haryana, UP, Rajasthan and Delhi, and Khalsa rule spread to northern India. He is also generous. Once the Dehi emperor secretly sent him valuables He kept only the weapons but distributed the rest of the expensive gifts to his Sikhs.

Legacy and Contributions: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s leadership and contributions significantly shaped Sikh history. His military successes inspired pride and confidence among Sikhs, establishing him as a revered figure within the community. His efforts in safeguarding Sikh institutions, promoting Sikh values, and fostering unity laid the foundation for a united Sikh identity and the eventual establishment of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Martyrdom and Legacy: Despite his military successes and administrative reforms, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s life came to a tragic end. In 1803, he was betrayed and captured by the Sukerchakia Misl, led by Ranjit Singh’s father, Maha Singh. He was then handed over to the Mughal authorities and subsequently executed. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s martyrdom further solidified his legendary status and left a lasting impact on Sikh collective memory.

Conclusion: Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, a revered Sikh warrior and statesman, played a pivotal role in defending Sikh interests, consolidating power, and shaping Sikh history. His military brilliance, administrative acumen, and commitment to Sikh principles continue to inspire and resonate with Sikhs worldwide. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia’s legacy serves as a reminder of the indomitable spirit, valor, and resilience of the Sikh community

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